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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (36):
1

What happens during dehydration synthesis? What about hydrolysis?

An enzyme joins two monomers. Water is a byproduct. In hydrolysis, the polymers break back into monomers using water.

2

What might be a products of hydrolysis reactions occuring on a triglyceride?

Fatty acids and glycerol.

3

What happens at receptor proteins?

Hormones bind there.

4

What do transport proteins do?

Allows ions (or other things that need aid) move in and out of the cell.

5

What do enzymes do?

These proteins help catalyze chemical reactions.

6

What might happen with recognition proteins?

A woman has a disorder causing her immune system to attack her own cells. She may have a problem with these proteins.

7

What do adhesion proteins do?

Allow cells to stick together.

8

What is the monomer of a protein?

An amino acid.

9

In a ____ reaction, an electron acceptor gains electrons and their energy.

Reduction

10

What is cell theory?

That all cells are made of one or more cells, the fundamental units of life.

11

Movement would not be considered a characteristic of what?

A characteristic of life

12

In a ____ reaction, a molecule, atom, or ion loses electrons and _____.

Oxidation, energy

13

In a ______ reaction, an electron acceptor gains electrons and their energy.

Reduction

14

When these electron transferring reactions occur together (oxidation and reduction), they are called ____ reactions, and they play a vital role in cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

Redox

15

Why is cellular respiration important?

It generates ATP, which cells can use to do work.

16

Explain how active transport, ATP, energy, and concentration gradients are related.

Active transport uses ATP to create a concentration gradient which stores potential energy.

17

Define osmosis.

The movement of water molecule across a membrane of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration.

18

A red blood cell placed in a hypertonic solution will

shrink

19

What type of bonds link individual amino acids together?

Peptide bonds

20

The sodium-potassium pump moves what?

It moves sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.

21

Where does glycolysis take place?

In the cytoplasm.

22

Electrons that are transferred through the electron transport system initially belong to

NADH and FADH(small 2)

23

Every monosaccharide, fatty acid, and nucleotide contains

hydrogen and carbon.

24

Where in the cell is the enzyme that produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

Inner membrane of the mitochondria.

25

What structures are found in all cells?

Ribosomes, DNA, RNA, proteins, and a cell membrane.

26

The bonds of a water molecule are

polar

27

Hydrogen atoms have a slight ____ charge.

Positive

28

Oxygen atoms have a slight _____ charge.

Negative

29

In the _____ region of a phospholipid, there is fatty acid.

Nonpolar

30

In the _____ region of a phospholipid, there is phosphate and glycerol.

Polar

31

Where in the cell does the Krebs Cycle occur?

Matrix of mitochondria

32

The phospholipid bilayer of a cell has

hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails

33

These junctions are like "spot wields" forming a very durable, strong start of cells.

Anchoring junctions

34

Animal cells use these junctions for whisk chemical communication with neighboring cells.

Gap junctions

35

Plant cells use these junctions for chemical communication with neighboring cells.

Plasmodesmata

36

These junctions form impenetrable barriers between cells.

Tight junctions