Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (123):
Maintaining this includes body temperature, having needed nutrients, salt concentration, fluid composition, and vessel dilation and constriction.
The control of body temperature.
Organisms that maintain their internal temperature on their own.
Endotherms need more what?
Uses the environment to balance their heat gains and losses.
Ectotherms need less what?
These consume to get organic materials (molecules).
These make their own organic molecules.
An animal's what state can affect its metabolic state.
Needed in varied amounts. Organic molecules including cards, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids.
Needed in small amounts including vitamins and minerals.
Nutrition labels base their servings on
% daily value or 2000 calorie diet.
What is leptin?
It tells the body when to stop eating.
What is the BMI equation?
Weight (kg) over height (m)^2
The study of the structure of animal bodies.
The study of the function of animal bodies.
Cells (based on function) are organized into
Different tissues interact and function as
Consists of two or more organs that are physically or functionally joined
Four types of tissues
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Tissues are embedded in a
Tightly packed cells that coat the body's internal and external surfaces
These tissue have one layer of cells
These tissue have multiple layers of cells
Tissue with lots of flattened cells. Hardy, can withstand pressure and abrasions
Tissue that is only one layer thick of flattened cells. Found in the lining of certain blood vessels and allows for certain things to exchange materials, gases to diffuse, nutrients to pass through.
Consists of cells scattered within an extracellular matrix, rather than being connected to one another, that bind other tissues together.
Cartilage is made up of fibers called ____ that allow for strength and flexibility. It is found in ears, nose, and ends of bones where joints meet.
____ gives structure and stores calcium and phosphorus.
This kind of tissue provides movement.
This kind of skeletal muscle has repeated patterns.
This kind of skeletal muscle does not have repeated patterns.
This kind of muscle tissue is straited and branched, found in the heart, and does involuntary movements.
This kind of muscle tissue is not straited. It makes small involuntary movements. Found in small intestine.
This kind of tissue transmits information and transmits electrical impulses.
Very few biological functions demonstrate _______ in which the body reactions to a change by amplifying it. Examples of this include blood clotting and kidneys removing acidic H* ions.
The _____ system consists of the skin, consisting of multiple interacting tissue types to maintain homeostasis.
How might the loss of large areas of skin disrupt the body's ability to maintain homeostasis?
Vulnerable more to infections, risk of dehydration, decrease vitamin D synthesis, increase risk of hypothermia.
List the steps of digestion
Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
One opening in the digestion tract is known as ____.
Two openings in the digestion tract is known as _____.
A complete digestive tract is also known as ____.
_____ have specialized organs that help break down hard-to-digest plants.
Ruminants. Their organs are the rumen and cecum.
Allows for mechanical break-down; begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates.
Connects mouth with esophagus; routes air to trachea
Pushes food to stomach
This type of muscle underlies organs through the digestive system, where rhythmic waves of muscle contraction move food in one direction through the digestive tract.
Rhythmic waves of muscle constraction
In the stomach ____ continues mechanical digestion while ____ continues chemical; digestion.
Churning, gastric juices
Gastric juices include:
Pepsin, mucus, salts, water, hydrochloric acid
This prevents water from going through with a mucus layer on top that stops the harsh chemicals from eating away at your stomach.
Why is the small intestine folded?
Maximize surface area for adsorbing nutrients from food
Neutralizes stomach acid through various enzymes (highlighted on April 4 notes to reread.)
Produces bile and emulsifies far
If you cannot store bile, you must watch your ___ intake.
Absorbs water and salts before the remaining undigested food is eliminated as feces.
Humans have a very small ___ to break down the cell walls in the plants we eat.
Made up of nephrons which help filter things out of the blood. What is filtered out is sent to the bladder. It also keeps certain ions and molecules in our system that we want to keep.
In descending order, what makes us the urinary system?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, uretha
Capillaries need to stay close to nephrons why?
So secretion and re-absorption can occur.
As fluids travel through the tubules of nehprons, water and some other substances are ____ into the blood.
Blood _____ some substances straight into the tubules.
_____ is at the end of the tubule which moves fluid toward the urinary bladder.
What hormone regulates kidney function? High levels of this signal the kidneys to decrease water lost in urine.
Promotes re-absorption of Na+ into the bloodstream.
Nervous system allows for what to take place?
Rapid communication between cells
Two types of cells in the nervous system
Neurons and neuroglia
Consists of brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System
Consists of all else that carries stimuli
Peripheral Nervous System
Parts of neuron
Dentries, cell body, axon
Where impulses jump between gap between nurons
Picks up stimuli from the peripheral nervous system
Receive signals from sensory neurons
Conducts a message from the CNS to a muscle or gland, stimulating a contraction or secretion
Violently study Action Potential
Inside the axon is ___ charged. Outside the axon is an abundance of ___ ions.
Charge difference across the membrane
When the neuron receives a stimulus, ____ open, allowing ___ ions to trickle into the axon.
Sodium channels, Na+
If the membrane potential reaches the threshold, _____.
More sodium channels open
When the membrane potential peaks, _____
Sodium channels close and potassium channels open
Progression of signals on a never cell
Dendrites, cell body, axon
Ion channels are concentrated in the gaps between
Losing myelin sheath would result in
Action potential transmission slowing down
Molecules called ____ move across synapses
Glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, epinepherine are the most common types of
Insominia is due to deficient
Pakinson's is due to deficient
Schizophrenia is due to
Deficient FABA and excess dopamine
System works to interpret and respond
Gray matter is
Cell bodies and dendrites
White matter is
4 lobes of the brain
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
Frontal lobe is for
Parietal lobe is for
Touch and taste
Temporal lobe is for
Hearing and smell
Occipital lobe is for
Fight or flight. Interacts with hormones for this short-term response
Rest and repose. Decreases heart rate and breathing rate and constricts arteries
Viscus fluid, bone, several layers of meninges tissue, and the blood barrier make up
Protection around the brain
Senses all over the body, touch, temperature, pain
Hearing and equilibrium, vision, smell, and taste
Translating stimuli into electrical signals
Raw input from the peripheral nervous system
The brain's interpretation of a sensation
pick up physical stimuli
Pick up chaemicals like mouth and nose
pick up light
Communication biochemicals of the endocrine system
Each hormone trvels through the body but it only binds to a
Circulates the bloodstream, but cannot enter the target cell because of fatty acid tails of the cell membrane are phobic to this. Activates a second messenger molecule in the cell, making metabolic events take place.
Can pass through the cell membrane. Enters the cell and binds with a receptor protein in either the cytoplasm or nucleus. Activates transcription of gene, resulting in the production of one or more ew proteins in the cell. New protein triggers hormone's effect on the cell.
Control center for other glands
Hypothalamus and pituitary glands
Division of pituitary glands
Anterior (make and secretes its own hormones) and posterior (extension of hypothalamus but secretes what hypothalamus makes)
What does the hypothalamus do?
Adjusts hormone production based on current levels.
Posterior pituitary gland secretes what?
Antidiuretic hormone which regulates amount of water lost in urine
Anterior pituitary secretes what?
Endorpine for pain releif and growth hormones for all tissue
What does the thyroid gland do?
Secretes calcitonin which decreases amount of calcium in the blood to give to bones
What does the parathyroid do?
Opposite of thyroid. Sends calcitonin back to the blood for other functions that need it like muscle contration
Structure of adrenal gland
Inner portion is the medulla and outer potion is the cortex
What does the adrenal gland secrete?
Epinepherine and norepinephrine for short-term stress reponses. Works with sympathetic nervous system.
Pancreas secretes what?
Enzymes that regulate blood glucose levels.