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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (123):
1

Maintaining this includes body temperature, having needed nutrients, salt concentration, fluid composition, and vessel dilation and constriction.

Maintaining homeostasis

2

The control of body temperature.

Thermoregulation

3

Organisms that maintain their internal temperature on their own.

Endotherms.

4

Endotherms need more what?

Food.

5

Uses the environment to balance their heat gains and losses.

Ectotherms.

6

Ectotherms need less what?

Food.

7

These consume to get organic materials (molecules).

Heterotrophs

8

These make their own organic molecules.

Autotrophs

9

An animal's what state can affect its metabolic state.

Physiological

10

Needed in varied amounts. Organic molecules including cards, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids.

Macronutrients

11

Needed in small amounts including vitamins and minerals.

Micronutrients

12

Nutrition labels base their servings on

% daily value or 2000 calorie diet.

13

What is leptin?

It tells the body when to stop eating.

14

What is the BMI equation?

Weight (kg) over height (m)^2

15

The study of the structure of animal bodies.

Anatomy

16

The study of the function of animal bodies.

Physiology

17

Cells (based on function) are organized into

Tissues

18

Different tissues interact and function as

Organs

19

Consists of two or more organs that are physically or functionally joined

Organ systems

20

Four types of tissues

Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.

21

Tissues are embedded in a

Extracellular matrix

22

Tightly packed cells that coat the body's internal and external surfaces

Epithelial tissue

23

These tissue have one layer of cells

Simple

24

These tissue have multiple layers of cells

Stratified

25

Tissue with lots of flattened cells. Hardy, can withstand pressure and abrasions

Stratified squamous

26

Tissue that is only one layer thick of flattened cells. Found in the lining of certain blood vessels and allows for certain things to exchange materials, gases to diffuse, nutrients to pass through.

Simple squamous

27

Consists of cells scattered within an extracellular matrix, rather than being connected to one another, that bind other tissues together.

Connective tissue

28

Cartilage is made up of fibers called ____ that allow for strength and flexibility. It is found in ears, nose, and ends of bones where joints meet.

Collagen

29

____ gives structure and stores calcium and phosphorus.

Bone

30

This kind of tissue provides movement.

Muscle tissue

31

This kind of skeletal muscle has repeated patterns.

Straited

32

This kind of skeletal muscle does not have repeated patterns.

Non-straited

33

This kind of muscle tissue is straited and branched, found in the heart, and does involuntary movements.

Cardiac muscle

34

This kind of muscle tissue is not straited. It makes small involuntary movements. Found in small intestine.

Smooth muscle

35

This kind of tissue transmits information and transmits electrical impulses.

Nervous tissue

36

Very few biological functions demonstrate _______ in which the body reactions to a change by amplifying it. Examples of this include blood clotting and kidneys removing acidic H* ions.

Positive feedback

37

The _____ system consists of the skin, consisting of multiple interacting tissue types to maintain homeostasis.

Integumentary

38

How might the loss of large areas of skin disrupt the body's ability to maintain homeostasis?

Vulnerable more to infections, risk of dehydration, decrease vitamin D synthesis, increase risk of hypothermia.

39

List the steps of digestion

Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination

40

One opening in the digestion tract is known as ____.

Incomplete

41

Two openings in the digestion tract is known as _____.

Complete

42

A complete digestive tract is also known as ____.

GI tract

43

_____ have specialized organs that help break down hard-to-digest plants.

Ruminants. Their organs are the rumen and cecum.

44

Allows for mechanical break-down; begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates.

Mouth

45

Connects mouth with esophagus; routes air to trachea

Pharnyx

46

Pushes food to stomach

Esophagus

47

This type of muscle underlies organs through the digestive system, where rhythmic waves of muscle contraction move food in one direction through the digestive tract.

Smooth muscle

48

Rhythmic waves of muscle constraction

Peristalsis

49

In the stomach ____ continues mechanical digestion while ____ continues chemical; digestion.

Churning, gastric juices

50

Gastric juices include:

Pepsin, mucus, salts, water, hydrochloric acid

51

This prevents water from going through with a mucus layer on top that stops the harsh chemicals from eating away at your stomach.

Epithelial lining

52

Why is the small intestine folded?

Maximize surface area for adsorbing nutrients from food

53

Neutralizes stomach acid through various enzymes (highlighted on April 4 notes to reread.)

Pancreas

54

Stores bile

Gallbladder

55

Produces bile and emulsifies far

Liver

56

If you cannot store bile, you must watch your ___ intake.

Lipid/fat

57

Absorbs water and salts before the remaining undigested food is eliminated as feces.

Large intestine

58

Humans have a very small ___ to break down the cell walls in the plants we eat.

Cecum

59

Made up of nephrons which help filter things out of the blood. What is filtered out is sent to the bladder. It also keeps certain ions and molecules in our system that we want to keep.

Kidneys

60

In descending order, what makes us the urinary system?

Kidneys, ureters, bladder, uretha

61

Capillaries need to stay close to nephrons why?

So secretion and re-absorption can occur.

62

As fluids travel through the tubules of nehprons, water and some other substances are ____ into the blood.

Reabsorbed

63

Blood _____ some substances straight into the tubules.

Secretes

64

_____ is at the end of the tubule which moves fluid toward the urinary bladder.

Collecting duct

65

What hormone regulates kidney function? High levels of this signal the kidneys to decrease water lost in urine.

Antidiuretic hormone

66

Promotes re-absorption of Na+ into the bloodstream.

Aldosterone

67

Nervous system allows for what to take place?

Rapid communication between cells

68

Two types of cells in the nervous system

Neurons and neuroglia

69

Consists of brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System

70

Consists of all else that carries stimuli

Peripheral Nervous System

71

Parts of neuron

Dentries, cell body, axon

72

Where impulses jump between gap between nurons

Synapses

73

Picks up stimuli from the peripheral nervous system

Sensory neurons

74

Receive signals from sensory neurons

Interneurons

75

Conducts a message from the CNS to a muscle or gland, stimulating a contraction or secretion

Motor neurons

76

Violently study Action Potential

Yeah

77

Inside the axon is ___ charged. Outside the axon is an abundance of ___ ions.

Negatively, Na+

78

Charge difference across the membrane

Membrane potential

79

When the neuron receives a stimulus, ____ open, allowing ___ ions to trickle into the axon.

Sodium channels, Na+

80

If the membrane potential reaches the threshold, _____.

More sodium channels open

81

When the membrane potential peaks, _____

Sodium channels close and potassium channels open

82

Progression of signals on a never cell

Dendrites, cell body, axon

83

Ion channels are concentrated in the gaps between

Myelin sheath

84

Losing myelin sheath would result in

Action potential transmission slowing down

85

Molecules called ____ move across synapses

Neurotransmitters

86

Glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, epinepherine are the most common types of

Neurotransmitters

87

Insominia is due to deficient

Serotonin

88

Pakinson's is due to deficient

Dopamine

89

Schizophrenia is due to

Deficient FABA and excess dopamine

90

System works to interpret and respond

CNS

91

Gray matter is

Cell bodies and dendrites

92

White matter is

myelinated axons

93

4 lobes of the brain

Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital

94

Frontal lobe is for

Speech

95

Parietal lobe is for

Touch and taste

96

Temporal lobe is for

Hearing and smell

97

Occipital lobe is for

Vision

98

Fight or flight. Interacts with hormones for this short-term response

Sympathetic

99

Rest and repose. Decreases heart rate and breathing rate and constricts arteries

Parasympathetic

100

Viscus fluid, bone, several layers of meninges tissue, and the blood barrier make up

Protection around the brain

101

Senses all over the body, touch, temperature, pain

General senses

102

Hearing and equilibrium, vision, smell, and taste

Special senses

103

Translating stimuli into electrical signals

Transduction

104

Raw input from the peripheral nervous system

Sensation

105

The brain's interpretation of a sensation

Perception

106

Mechanoreceptors do

pick up physical stimuli

107

Chemoreceptors do

Pick up chaemicals like mouth and nose

108

Photoreceptors do

pick up light

109

Communication biochemicals of the endocrine system

Hormones

110

Each hormone trvels through the body but it only binds to a

Target cell

111

Circulates the bloodstream, but cannot enter the target cell because of fatty acid tails of the cell membrane are phobic to this. Activates a second messenger molecule in the cell, making metabolic events take place.

Water-soluble hormone

112

Can pass through the cell membrane. Enters the cell and binds with a receptor protein in either the cytoplasm or nucleus. Activates transcription of gene, resulting in the production of one or more ew proteins in the cell. New protein triggers hormone's effect on the cell.

Lipid-soluble hormone

113

Control center for other glands

Hypothalamus and pituitary glands

114

Division of pituitary glands

Anterior (make and secretes its own hormones) and posterior (extension of hypothalamus but secretes what hypothalamus makes)

115

What does the hypothalamus do?

Adjusts hormone production based on current levels.

116

Posterior pituitary gland secretes what?

Antidiuretic hormone which regulates amount of water lost in urine

117

Anterior pituitary secretes what?

Endorpine for pain releif and growth hormones for all tissue

118

What does the thyroid gland do?

Secretes calcitonin which decreases amount of calcium in the blood to give to bones

119

What does the parathyroid do?

Opposite of thyroid. Sends calcitonin back to the blood for other functions that need it like muscle contration

120

Structure of adrenal gland

Inner portion is the medulla and outer potion is the cortex

121

What does the adrenal gland secrete?

Epinepherine and norepinephrine for short-term stress reponses. Works with sympathetic nervous system.

122

Pancreas secretes what?

Enzymes that regulate blood glucose levels.

123

Pineal gland produces what?

Melatonin which regulates the sleep-wake cycle. Darkness triggers melatonin synthesis.