Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (153):
This gland secretes the antidiuretic hormone, which regulates the amount of water lost in urine. (This gland is an extension of the hypothalamus.)
This gland makes and secretes endorphines (pain relievers) and growth hormones (for all tissue.)
Secretes calcitonin, which decreases the amount of calcium in the blood by depositing it in bone.
Secretes a hormone that does the exact opposite of calcitonin, which is needed for the body to perform other functions such as muscle contraction.
Secretes epinepherine and norepinepherine as short-term stress responses. Works with the sympathetic nervous system.
What are the sections of the adrenal gland?
The medulla is the inner portion; the cortex is the outer portion.
Secretes an enzyme that regulates blood glucose levels, such as insulin and glucagon.
Produces melatonin which regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
Skeleton on the outside, made of chitin.
Skeleton providing internal support. Light weight, but strong and flexible.
Everything 'down the middle,' such as the skull, rib cage, and spinal column.
Arms, legs... Includes pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula) and pelvic girdle.
How many bones do we have?
What exists between bones and inbetween disks of vertebrae?
How many pairs of ribs do we have?
Cartilage connects ribs to what?
Bone that is solid around the edges.
Bone that distributes weight and pressure so the bone will not break.
The shaft of a long bone consists of a ___
Where red blood cells and platelets are found. As one ages, this changes.
Does not produce any blood cells, but it can convert back if the body needs to replenish red blood cells.
What are stored in bones?
Phosphorous and calcium
What proteins give bone flexibility?
Elastin and collagen
An especially notable role of the skeleton is ___
If bone loses more calcium than added, then ___ develops.
Shows how cartilage amounts in bone decreases as one ages.
Embryonic cartilage model
Area where two bones meet
Connect bone to bone
Connect muscle to bone
Describes our control of body openings, maintaining posture, communication, and maintaining body temperature.
Sections of myofibril that shortens when muscles contract
What is the order of muscle anatomy?
Muscle, muscle fiber, myofibril, actin subunit
A released muscle is not activating any ___
Study the steps of muscle contraction at a molecular scale. (April 23)
Send impulses from the central nervous system to muscle cells
The signal to contract is transmitted across synapses called ___
The destruction of motor neurons means ___
Muscles will fail to contract (because they do not receive the signals to do so)
A resting muscle cell generates ATP in ___
Where lactic acid builds up, causing a burning feeling in muscles
When actin cannot separate from myosin, it results in
Blood is the fluid of the ___
The three major blood vessels
Arteries, veins, and capillaries
Blood consists of cells suspended in a liquid extracellular matrix called ___
Red blood cells carry oxygen to body tissues using ___
Mostly designed to transport oxygen, originated from red bone marrow, and packed with hemoglobin.
Red blood cells
Plasma is mostly ___
Alcohol ___ the rate at which blood clotting occurs.
Has short, open-ended vessels, low pressure.
Open circulatory system
Where blood remains in the vessels, high pressure with blood moving fast.
Closed circulatory system
A closed circulatory systems has ___ chambers of the heart.
An open circulatory system has ___ chambers of the heart.
A widespread collection of cells and chemicals that defend the body against infections, cancer, and foreign substances.
Our first line of defense is
Two major subdivisions of the immune system
Innate defenses and adaptive immunity
Provides broad defense against any pathogens
Immune cells recognize and remember specific pathogens
When temperatures get too high, it ___ proteins, fighting off infections.
___ causes inflammation, dilating blood vessels, causing them to become more permeable.
___ recruits immune components, which helps clean debris and create an environment hostile to microbes.
Types of adaptive immunity
Cell-mediated and humoral
The target of an adaptive immune response is ___, a molecule that stimulates an immune reaction by B cells and T cells.
___ triggers both cell-mediated and humoral immunity.
Study the processes of adaptive immune responses. (April 27)
Because of ___, the secondary immune response is faster and stronger than the first.
Stimulates active immunity against a pathogen without causing illness.
The gonads of sexually reproducing individuals produce ___
Haploid gametes by meiosis
Gametes unite at fertilization, forming ___
Cell acquiring specialized functions
Gene determine the overall shape and structure of an animal's body in a process called ___
Organism spends most of its live in its larval form
The immature form looks like a mini version of the adult
Referred to as the "Master Regulatory Genes" that regulate the formation/placement of specific structures
Where sperm is produced
Within each testis are tightly coiled ___
What is produced in the walls of the seminiferous tubules?
Diploid germ cells divide by meiosis into ___, still diploids.
Sperm's ___ is on the outside to help it move.
Sperm cells have a cap called an ___ which helps it penetrate the jelly later of the egg.
Each mature sperm cells has a ___ nucleus, long flagellum, mitochondria, and a cap-like acrosome.
In males and females, the hypothalamus secretes ___
In males and females, the anterior pituitary secretes ___, which in turn stimulates the testes to produce ___
FSH and LN, testosterone
Eggs are produced in
Eggs are released into the
Each oocyte is arrested in
Prophase I of meiosis
Each month, after puberty behins, one primary oocyte completes meiosis I. Each developing oocyte is nestled in a fluid-filled
Meiosis I yields a secondary oocyte that is released from the ovary, an event called
Meiosis I also yields a ___, a haploid cells that contains no cytoplasm.
If sperm fertilizes the secondary oocyte, ___
Meiosis II completes.
FSH and LH stimulates the ___ to secrete ___
Ovaries, progesterone and estrogen
The ___ controls oocyte maturation in the ovaries.
The follicle turns into ___
___ prepares the uterus for prgnancy
If no pregnancy occurs, then the corpus luteum ___
Fertilization occurs in
The uterine tube
Birth control pills contain synthetic forms of ___
Estrogen and progesterone
What are the grouping of birth control?
Barriers and spermicies, hormonal, behavioral, and surgical.
Know direction blood moves through the heart. (Google)
What are autosomes?
First 22 pairs chromosomes, not including the two that code for sex.
Gene's location on a chromosome.
Germ cells are ___ which undergo meiosis to form four genetically identical ___ cells.
Some genetic disorders are caused by a defective ___
Know the product rule.
ALS is a disorder in which motor neurons are destroyed. How would this disease affect muscle function?
Muscles fail to contract because they do not receive the signal to do so.
Meiosis I also yields a ___, a haploid cell that contains almost no cytoplasm.
Type of muscle underlies digestive system
Do humans have trouble digesting plant-based material?
What process does not occur in the nephron?
What breaks down starch?
In the middle of a cycle, a spike in ___ triggers a spike in LH, which cues ovulation.
In the mouth
Are gametes produced through mitosis?
How to endothermic maintain their body temperature?
Order of signals passed down a neruon
Dendrite, cell body, axon
Takes calcium from the bone and puts it back into the blood
Part of the brain that adjusts hormone production based on current hormone levels
Review lobes of the brain.
Produces hormones that coordinate the action of other endocrine glands
Pituitary and hypothalamus
-soluable molecule can pass through the target cell.
Fluid in semen mostly comes from
Corpus lumen produces large amounts of ___, which cues the uterine lining to thicken faster.
If a part of one's posterior pituitary gland is removed, what may happen?
Too much water will be lost in urine
What part of the adrenal gland produces epinphrine and noepinephrine?
The sliding filmanet model is an example of
What are the body's tiniest blood vessels?
What prevents food from getting into our airways?
What is considered the pacemaker of the heart?
Blood pressure in veins is
Sperm production begins with ___ germ cells that reside within the walls of the seminiferous tubules.
After how many days does the corpus lumens start to break down?
What is the least effective method of birth control?
Respiratory surfaces are
Large in area, make contact with air, and are moist
Binding cites are hidden until ___ shows up
At the end of spermatogensis, the cells are ___
Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart.
Deliverers oxygenated blood from lungs to heart.
Carries oxygenated blood from heart to lungs.
___ carries blood to the hear.
___ carries blood away from the heart.
Make sure to look at heart from "anatomical position/"someone facing you.
The ___ half of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs.
The ___ half of the heart receives blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body.
___ starts the heartbeat.
Order of blood movement in heart.
Right atrium to right ventrical. Left atrium to left ventrical.
Amount of blood pumped through the heart per minute.
As arteries get closer to a capillary bed, they constrict and become known as
Only one cell layer thick, allowing water and substances to easily diffuse to body tissue.
Blood pressure in these is low, therefore having a thinner layer of smooth muscle. Carries blood to the heart.
Carries blood away from the heart. Has a thick layer of smooth muscle that can withstand high blood pressure.