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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (153):
1

This gland secretes the antidiuretic hormone, which regulates the amount of water lost in urine. (This gland is an extension of the hypothalamus.)

Posterior pituitary

2

This gland makes and secretes endorphines (pain relievers) and growth hormones (for all tissue.)

Anterior pituitary

3

Secretes calcitonin, which decreases the amount of calcium in the blood by depositing it in bone.

Thyroid

4

Secretes a hormone that does the exact opposite of calcitonin, which is needed for the body to perform other functions such as muscle contraction.

Parathyroid

5

Secretes epinepherine and norepinepherine as short-term stress responses. Works with the sympathetic nervous system.

Adrenal gland

6

What are the sections of the adrenal gland?

The medulla is the inner portion; the cortex is the outer portion.

7

Secretes an enzyme that regulates blood glucose levels, such as insulin and glucagon.

Pancreas

8

Produces melatonin which regulates the sleep-wake cycle.

Pineal gland

9

Skeleton on the outside, made of chitin.

Exoskeleton

10

Skeleton providing internal support. Light weight, but strong and flexible.

Endoskeleton

11

Everything 'down the middle,' such as the skull, rib cage, and spinal column.

Axial skeleton

12

Arms, legs... Includes pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula) and pelvic girdle.

Appendicular skeleton

13

How many bones do we have?

206

14

What exists between bones and inbetween disks of vertebrae?

Cartilige

15

How many pairs of ribs do we have?

12

16

Cartilage connects ribs to what?

Sternum

17

Bone that is solid around the edges.

Compact bone

18

Bone that distributes weight and pressure so the bone will not break.

Spongy bone

19

The shaft of a long bone consists of a ___

Marrow cavity

20

Where red blood cells and platelets are found. As one ages, this changes.

Red marrow

21

Does not produce any blood cells, but it can convert back if the body needs to replenish red blood cells.

Yellow marrow

22

What are stored in bones?

Phosphorous and calcium

23

What proteins give bone flexibility?

Elastin and collagen

24

An especially notable role of the skeleton is ___

Calcium homeostasis

25

If bone loses more calcium than added, then ___ develops.

Osteoporosis

26

Shows how cartilage amounts in bone decreases as one ages.

Embryonic cartilage model

27

Area where two bones meet

Joint

28

Connect bone to bone

Ligaments

29

Connect muscle to bone

Tendons

30

Describes our control of body openings, maintaining posture, communication, and maintaining body temperature.

Voluntary movements

31

Sections of myofibril that shortens when muscles contract

Sarcomeres

32

What is the order of muscle anatomy?

Muscle, muscle fiber, myofibril, actin subunit

33

A released muscle is not activating any ___

Neurons

34

Study the steps of muscle contraction at a molecular scale. (April 23)

OK

35

Send impulses from the central nervous system to muscle cells

Motor neurons

36

The signal to contract is transmitted across synapses called ___

Neuromuscular junctions

37

The destruction of motor neurons means ___

Muscles will fail to contract (because they do not receive the signals to do so)

38

A resting muscle cell generates ATP in ___

Aerobic respiration

39

Where lactic acid builds up, causing a burning feeling in muscles

Anaerobic respiration

40

When actin cannot separate from myosin, it results in

Rigor mortis

41

Blood is the fluid of the ___

Circulatory system

42

The three major blood vessels

Arteries, veins, and capillaries

43

Blood consists of cells suspended in a liquid extracellular matrix called ___

Plasma

44

Red blood cells carry oxygen to body tissues using ___

Hemoglobin

45

Mostly designed to transport oxygen, originated from red bone marrow, and packed with hemoglobin.

Red blood cells

46

Plasma is mostly ___

Water

47

Alcohol ___ the rate at which blood clotting occurs.

Decreases

48

Has short, open-ended vessels, low pressure.

Open circulatory system

49

Where blood remains in the vessels, high pressure with blood moving fast.

Closed circulatory system

50

A closed circulatory systems has ___ chambers of the heart.

Two

51

An open circulatory system has ___ chambers of the heart.

Four

52

A widespread collection of cells and chemicals that defend the body against infections, cancer, and foreign substances.

Immune system

53

Disease-causing agents

Pathogens

54

Our first line of defense is

Skin

55

Two major subdivisions of the immune system

Innate defenses and adaptive immunity

56

Provides broad defense against any pathogens

Innate defense

57

Immune cells recognize and remember specific pathogens

Adaptive immunity

58

When temperatures get too high, it ___ proteins, fighting off infections.

Denatures

59

___ causes inflammation, dilating blood vessels, causing them to become more permeable.

Histamine

60

___ recruits immune components, which helps clean debris and create an environment hostile to microbes.

Inflammation

61

Types of adaptive immunity

Cell-mediated and humoral

62

The target of an adaptive immune response is ___, a molecule that stimulates an immune reaction by B cells and T cells.

Antigen

63

___ triggers both cell-mediated and humoral immunity.

Microphages

64

Study the processes of adaptive immune responses. (April 27)

OK

65

Because of ___, the secondary immune response is faster and stronger than the first.

Memory cells

66

Stimulates active immunity against a pathogen without causing illness.

Vaccine

67

The gonads of sexually reproducing individuals produce ___

Haploid gametes by meiosis

68

Gametes unite at fertilization, forming ___

Diploid zygote

69

Cell acquiring specialized functions

Differentiation

70

Gene determine the overall shape and structure of an animal's body in a process called ___

Pattern formation

71

Organism spends most of its live in its larval form

Indirect development

72

The immature form looks like a mini version of the adult

Direct development

73

Referred to as the "Master Regulatory Genes" that regulate the formation/placement of specific structures

Homeotic genes

74

Where sperm is produced

Testes

75

Within each testis are tightly coiled ___

Seminiferous tubules.

76

What is produced in the walls of the seminiferous tubules?

Sperm

77

Diploid germ cells divide by meiosis into ___, still diploids.

Spermatocytes

78

Sperm's ___ is on the outside to help it move.

Mitochondria

79

Sperm cells have a cap called an ___ which helps it penetrate the jelly later of the egg.

Acrosome

80

Each mature sperm cells has a ___ nucleus, long flagellum, mitochondria, and a cap-like acrosome.

Haploid

81

In males and females, the hypothalamus secretes ___

GnRH

82

In males and females, the anterior pituitary secretes ___, which in turn stimulates the testes to produce ___

FSH and LN, testosterone

83

Eggs are produced in

Ovaries

84

Eggs are released into the

Uterine tube

85

Each oocyte is arrested in

Prophase I of meiosis

86

Each month, after puberty behins, one primary oocyte completes meiosis I. Each developing oocyte is nestled in a fluid-filled

Follicle

87

Meiosis I yields a secondary oocyte that is released from the ovary, an event called

Ovulation

88

Meiosis I also yields a ___, a haploid cells that contains no cytoplasm.

Polar body

89

If sperm fertilizes the secondary oocyte, ___

Meiosis II completes.

90

FSH and LH stimulates the ___ to secrete ___

Ovaries, progesterone and estrogen

91

The ___ controls oocyte maturation in the ovaries.

Ovarian cycle

92

The follicle turns into ___

Corpus luteum

93

___ prepares the uterus for prgnancy

Menstrual cycle

94

If no pregnancy occurs, then the corpus luteum ___

Degrades

95

Fertilization occurs in

The uterine tube

96

Birth control pills contain synthetic forms of ___

Estrogen and progesterone

97

What are the grouping of birth control?

Barriers and spermicies, hormonal, behavioral, and surgical.

98

Know direction blood moves through the heart. (Google)

OK

99

What are autosomes?

First 22 pairs chromosomes, not including the two that code for sex.

100

Gene's location on a chromosome.

Locus

101

Germ cells are ___ which undergo meiosis to form four genetically identical ___ cells.

Haploid, diploid

102

YY

Homozygous dominate

103

Yy

Heterozygous

104

yy

Homozygouse recessive

105

Some genetic disorders are caused by a defective ___

Dominate alleles

106

Know the product rule.

OK

107

ALS is a disorder in which motor neurons are destroyed. How would this disease affect muscle function?

Muscles fail to contract because they do not receive the signal to do so.

108

Meiosis I also yields a ___, a haploid cell that contains almost no cytoplasm.

Polar body

109

Type of muscle underlies digestive system

Smooth

110

Do humans have trouble digesting plant-based material?

Yes

111

What process does not occur in the nephron?

Elimination

112

What breaks down starch?

Amalayse

113

In the middle of a cycle, a spike in ___ triggers a spike in LH, which cues ovulation.

Estrogen

114

Digestion begins

In the mouth

115

Are gametes produced through mitosis?

No

116

How to endothermic maintain their body temperature?

Internally

117

Order of signals passed down a neruon

Dendrite, cell body, axon

118

Takes calcium from the bone and puts it back into the blood

Parathyroid gland

119

Part of the brain that adjusts hormone production based on current hormone levels

Hypothalamus

120

Review lobes of the brain.

OK

121

Produces hormones that coordinate the action of other endocrine glands

Pituitary and hypothalamus

122

-soluable molecule can pass through the target cell.

Lipid

123

Fluid in semen mostly comes from

Seminal vesicle

124

Corpus lumen produces large amounts of ___, which cues the uterine lining to thicken faster.

Progesterone

125

If a part of one's posterior pituitary gland is removed, what may happen?

Too much water will be lost in urine

126

What part of the adrenal gland produces epinphrine and noepinephrine?

Medulla

127

The sliding filmanet model is an example of

Muscle contraction

128

What are the body's tiniest blood vessels?

Capillaries

129

What prevents food from getting into our airways?

Epiglottis

130

What is considered the pacemaker of the heart?

SA node

131

Blood pressure in veins is

Low

132

Sperm production begins with ___ germ cells that reside within the walls of the seminiferous tubules.

Diploid

133

After how many days does the corpus lumens start to break down?

14

134

What is the least effective method of birth control?

Behavioral

135

Respiratory surfaces are

Large in area, make contact with air, and are moist

136

Binding cites are hidden until ___ shows up

Clacium

137

At the end of spermatogensis, the cells are ___

Haploids

138

Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart.

Aorta

139

Deliverers oxygenated blood from lungs to heart.

Pulmonary veins

140

Carries oxygenated blood from heart to lungs.

Pulmonary arteries

141

___ carries blood to the hear.

Veins

142

___ carries blood away from the heart.

Arteries

143

Make sure to look at heart from "anatomical position/"someone facing you.

OK

144

The ___ half of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs.

Right

145

The ___ half of the heart receives blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body.

Left

146

___ starts the heartbeat.

SA node

147

Order of blood movement in heart.

Right atrium to right ventrical. Left atrium to left ventrical.

148

Amount of blood pumped through the heart per minute.

Cardiac output

149

As arteries get closer to a capillary bed, they constrict and become known as

Arteriole

150

Only one cell layer thick, allowing water and substances to easily diffuse to body tissue.

Capillaries

151

Blood pressure in these is low, therefore having a thinner layer of smooth muscle. Carries blood to the heart.

Veins

152

Carries blood away from the heart. Has a thick layer of smooth muscle that can withstand high blood pressure.

Arteries

153

Right side always has deoxygenated blood, left side always has oxygenated blood. No matter where the blood is coming from, it always enters the atrium first.

OK