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Flashcards in test 1 Deck (49):
1

5 sensory criteria

sight
odor
taste
touch
hearing

2

first impression of foods

sight

3

detected through volatile molecules

odor

4

capable of evaporating- through cooking or exposure to air

volatile

5

detecting odors is tricky because

ability to distinguish dimities over time; adaptation

6

sense is most influential

taste

7

where are taste buds located

on tongue
on mouth palate
on pharynx

8

what is actually being tasted?

nonvolatile and volatile compounds

9

cells responsible for taste

gustatory cells

10

how can food be tasted

must be dissolved in a liquid- aka saliva

11

sensory cells specialized to taste; found on the tongue

gustatory cells

12

amylase digests what

starch

13

explain process of how we taste

food enters mouth-food dissolves in saliva- food comes into contact with gustatory cells- gustatory cells relay message to brain-brain translates message into taste sensation

14

what are the 5 tastes

sweet
sour
bitter
salty
umami

15

types of sweets

glycols, alcohols, sugars

16

comes from acids; related to the concentration of H+ ions in foods

sour

17

why is sour food unpleasant in excess

the bodys protection against an acid/base

18

types of monosaccharides and the sweetest one

galactose, glucose, fructose

fructose Is sweetest

19

types of disaccharides and the sweetest one

maltose, lactose, sucrose

sucrose is the sweetest

20

what causes bitterness

poison, caffeine, theobromine (chocolate)

21

types of umami

glutamate (amino acid)
MSG, meat

22

types of factors affecting taste

genetic variation, temperature, color, repetition, time of day

23

what is flavor made up of

taste and aroma

24

foods that are more acidic, cool food; cranberries, lemon juice, vinegar

astringency

25

"hot" - peppers
"cold" - mints, cucumbers

chemesthesia

26

types of hearing for food

sizzling, crunching, popping

27

types of nutritional criteria

weight management, dietary guidelines for americans, special dietary concerns, consumer dietary changes, nutrigenomics

28

example of dietary guidelines for americans

choose my plate published every 5 years

29

types of special dietary concerns

vegan, vegetarian

30

field of study focusing on genetically determined biochemical pathways linking specific dietary substances with health and disease

nutrigenomics

31

provides a benefit beyond providing nutrients; beyond basic survival needs

functional foods

32

examples of functional foods

yogurt, oatmeal

33

4 types of cultural criteria

ethnic influences- hispanics like spicer foods
place of birth- regional differences
geography and climate- availability
manners- india food is eaten in right hand

34

2 types of religious criteria

vegetarianism ex buddhism
restrictions ex. islam all foods must be halal

35

foods must be kosher

judaism

36

meat prescribed by muslims

halal

37

3 types of psychological and sociological criteria

food security
food advertising
peer pressure-public attitudes

38

alteration of a gene in a bacterium, plant, or animal for the sake of changing one or more of its characteristics

bioengineering

39

2 most popular types of GMO

corn and soy

40

why is cross breeding not a thing

time consuming, cumbersome, and unpredictable

41

researchers can now identify the genes responsible for a desired trait; reorganize and insert those genes where desired- produce new species, improved versions of existing species

biotechnology?

42

what are the concerns of biotechnology and bioengineering

allergies, gene contamination, and religious/cultural concerns

43

no legal definition

natural foods

44

refers to foods that have been produced without most synthetic fertilizers and pesticides; crops that have not been genetically modified; have not been exposed to irradiation; livestock that has been produced without antibiotics or hormones

organic foods

45

2 government programs that address food security

SNAP and WIC

46

women, infants, and children

WIC

47

supplemental nutrition assistance program (food stamps)

SNAP

48

an organism whose genome has been altered by the techniques of genetic engineering so that its DNA contains one or more genes not normally found there.

GMO

49

the state of having reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food.

food security