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Flashcards in test 3 Deck (140):
1

Generally not consumed, but can be processed into fiber supplements

husk

2

bran is a good dietary source of

fiber and minerals

3

basis for all flours

endosperm

4

Major nutritive contribution to endosperm

complex carbs (starch)

5

Contains unsaturated fats, vitamins, minerals

germ

6

what is the difference between whole grain flour and refined grain flour

WHOLE GRAIN FLOUR INCLUDES GERM, BRAN, AND ENDOSPERM

7

uses of cereal grains

flour, pasta, breakfast cereal, alcoholic beverages

8

pasta is made predominantly from

starch and water

9

list 3 types of whole grains

whole wheat, brown rice, whole grain oats

10

replacement of nutrients lost during processing; putting micronutrients back in

enrichment

11

list gluten containing grains

wheat, barely, rye

12

adding nutrients that weren't there before

fortification

13

what Is not inherently gluten containing

oats

14

these crops don’t have any risk of being contaminated with gluten

GFCO

15

Most common method of preparation of cereal grains

the absorption method

16

preparation of cereal grains can be influenced by

presence/absence of bran
pH of water
desired tenderness
form of grain

17

ideal dry storage condition

Cool, dry place
Airtight wrappings
Will keep for 6-12 months when stored properly

18

• What types of grains require refrigeration?

Whole grains
Cooked grains

19

• What types of grains are appropriate to freeze?

Cooked, whole grains
Should not freeze uncooked grains due to protein denaturation

20

pasta is Generally made from semolina, which is derived from _____________

durum wheat

21

Higher the _____ of durum wheat, the better quality the pasta

protein content

22

durum is higher in WHAT, which provides good color

carotenoids

23

type of pasta that contains eggs

noodles

24

6 types of pasta

noodles, whole wheat, flavored, high protein, fresh, couscous

25

enrichment - replacing something lost
fortification- adding something new (only add back micronutrients)

KNOW

26

proper storage of pasta

dry-Tightly wrapped; cool
fresh-In the refrigerator
Refrigerated shelf life is around 1 week.

27

flours provide

structure, texture, and flavor

28

Starch, strengthens baked items, and contributes to crumb, which is influenced by

number of air cells
degree of starch gelatinization
Amount of protein coagulation

29

During baking, starch is broken down into 3 things

amylose, maltose, and glucose

30

contributes to firming of flour mixture

gluten

31

The ability of a baked product to rise is directly related to

protein content

32

purpose of gluten formation

flour is mixed with water; gliadin and glutenin combine to make gluten; gluten is elastic which allows it to expand with pressures of air, steam and CO2

33

expands and stretches gluten strands

kneading

34

Opening an oven door frequently?

steam and air escape from gluten which can cause the product to collapse

35

The greater the protein content the more water will be absorbed

hydration

36

what happens to excessive kneading in gluten formation

breaks down gluten strands so it becomes sticky and lumpy dough

37

Process by which the endosperm of a grain is ground into a fine powder

flour milling

38

where the bran and germ are removed in flour milling

breaking

39

flour is moved through fans to remove any additional bran (flour milling)

purifying

40

reduction rollers grind the product into flour

reducing

41

into streams based on particle size

sifting

42

based on the sifting results

classifying

43

3 types of wheat flour

whole wheat flour
bread flour- higher in gluten
white flour

44

what is the benefits of bread flour?

can take over-kneading

45

white flour that is ideal for pasta

durum

46

white flour that has lower protein content, higher starch content, treated with chlorine gas

cake flour

47

improves crumb/flavor, browns crust

milk

48

sweetens, increases volume, adds moistness, color

sugar

49

add structure, help leavening, improve color and flavor

eggs

50

hydrates flour, gelatinizes starch, serves as a solvent

liquid

51

tenderizes, increases volume, contributes to structure, flakiness, adds flavor, color, increases resistance to staling

fat

52

adds flavor, firms dough, improves volume/texture/crumb, prolongs shelf life

salt

53

increases volume, contributes to crumb/texture/flavor

leavening

54

during the malliard reaction..

milk
lactose + whey/casein = browning

55

3 types of leavening

Physical- air and/or steam
Biological- yeast, bacteria
Chemical- baking soda or baking powder

56

3 types of yeast

dry
fresh
Instant, quick-rising, fast-acting

57

most common type of yeast

dry

58

used in sourdough and salt-rising breads
Must be kept alive and fed

bacteria leavening

59

baking soda chemically yields

carbon dioxide

60

baking soda to flour ratio

1/4 teaspoon per cup of flour

61

not used alone if no acid is present

baking soda

62

baking powder =

baking soda + cream of tartar

63

too much leavening

overexpansion and collapse
Compact, dense product

64

too little leavening

no sufficient rising
Compact, dense product

65

lower atmospheric pressure =

decrease boiling points

66

high altitude adjustments ---

increase water lost through evaporation

67

leavening gases tend to WHAT due to less resistance

OVEREXPAND

68

use less of 3 things

leavening, sugar, fat

69

3 leavening gases

air, steam, carbon dioxide

70

what temperature should you cook at for higher altitudes

higher temps

71

Store in metal, glass, hard plastic containers that are airtight to prevent pest contamination

how to store flour

72

what is the storage length for white flour

1 year

73

what is the storage length for whole grain flour

3 months

74

Sift dry ingredients together
In separate bowl, combine moist ingredients
Stir together dry and moist ingredients with a few strokes, until dry ingredients are moist but still lumpy

muffin method

75

4 examples of pour batters

Pancakes
Crêpes
Waffles
Popovers

76

4 examples of drop batters

muffins
muffin bread
coffee cakes
dumplings

77

3 examples of quick breads dough

biscuits
scones
unleavened breads

78

batters are quite thin

pour batters

79

batters are thicker because they have more flour

drop batters

80

batter contains still more flour and are usually light kneaded

doughs

81

What differentiates pour batters from drop batters or doughs?

the ratio of flour to liquid determines whether the mixture is a pour, drop batter, or a dough

82

one-celled fungus that multiplies rapidly at the right temperature and in the presence of a small amount of sugar and moisture

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

83

place all ingredients into a bowl at the same time

straight dough method

84

combine yeast with water and 1/3 of the flour and allow to ferment; after, add remaining ingredients (except salt) salt added last

sponge method

85

requires no kneading; once ingredients are combined, they are beaten by an electric mixer to develop gluten (hamburger buns, rolls, etc..)

batter method

86

used with bread-making machines

rapid mix

87

Fermentation causes dough to rise due to production of carbon dioxide

proofing

88

Describe the “optimal conditions” for bread proofing

Should be warm
Free of drafts

89

What purpose does “punching down” serve when preparing yeast breads?

Allows excess gas to escape
Redistributes ingredients

90

What do we associated with overproofing?

Product will overexpand and collapse

91

proper storage of yeast bread

fresh bread, refrigeration, freezing

92

2 fruits

avocado and tomato

93

2 flowers

artichoke and broccoli

94

2 seeds

beans and corn

95

2 stems / shoots

asparagus and celery

96

2 tubers

potato and ginger root

97

2 root

beet, carrot

98

2 bulbs

garlic and onion

99

2 leaves

spinach and cabbage

100

List 3 types of fibrous compounds that may give strength to the cell wall of a parenchymal cell

gums, cellulose, and pectins

101

fibrous compounds are

indigestible

102

Parenchymal cells are responsible for

water and starch content, flavor, color

103

3 types of plastids

leucoplasts, chloroplasts, and chromoplasts

104

stores water and other compounds; determines juiciness of fruit/veggie

vacuole

105

intercellular air spaces between parenchymal cells account for adding volume and crispness to fruits and vegetables

plant cells don't fit tightly next o each other

106

3 pigments

carotenoids
cholorphyll
flavonoids

107

what 2 pigments are fat soluble

carotenoids and chlorophyll

108

what pigment is water soluble

flavonoids

109

♣ Wax coatings are used to prevent moisture loss

veggie additives

110

preservatives used for canned veggies

salt and sucrose

111

sodium bicarbondate

baking soda

112

makes photosynthesis possible

chlorophyll

113

blanching enhances green color

chlorophyll

114

anthocyanins
anthoxanthins
betalains

red blue
white
purplish red

115

Be able to list 2 potential benefits of vegetables as functional foods

good source of protein and iron

116

it is important to purchase the freshest vegetables and use the AMOUNT of heat, water, and time possible

smallest

117

surface of a veggie is sprinkled with salt to remove bitter substances

degorging

118

a reduction in turgor is good for WHAT during veg prep

potatoes and legumes

119

nutrient retention for veg

restrict water usage
quick cooking methods
leave sink on
cut veg into larger fewer pieces
cook just to point of doneness

120

What nutrients can increase as a consequence of vegetable preparation?

frying
increases protein from legumes by destroying certain enzymes
fiber increases as a percentage of weight

121

Two main considerations when preserving vegetables

respiration rate and moisture loss

122

the rate of carbon dioxide production over time

respiration rate

123

The ______ respiration rate, the more quickly the item deteriorates

faster

124

Cooler temperatures ___________ respiration rates

decrease

125

Crisper maintains ______________

moisture

126

escribe the three soaking methods used for legumes

overnight soak
short soak
no soak

127

classified according to the type of flower from which they develop

fruits

128

are fruits basic or acidic

acidic

129

responsible for firmness in fruits

pectic substance

130

responsible for browning and bruising in fruits

phenolic compounds

131

purchase of fruit depends on

appearance
size
color
shape
uniformity
freedom from defects

132

o Why does texture quality decrease in frozen in fruit versus fresh?

cell membrane rupture when ice crystals expand during freezing

133

not less than 100%

juice

134

not less than 50

juice drink

135

not less than 30-40

nectar

136

not less than 25

ade

137

not less than 10

drink

138

fruit texture becomes softer when cooked due to

cellulose degraded
protopectin- pectin
denaturation of cell membrane proteins

139

Ripe fruit with high water content should be consumed within ______________

3 days

140

How to lengthen time spent in the refrigerator

once fruit is ripe, storage time may be increased by placing it in plastic bags punctured with air holes and then refrigerated