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Flashcards in test 2 Deck (143):
1

types of beef

steers, bulls, heifers, cows, calves

2

Where does most beef sold for retail use come from?

steers and heifers

3

used for breeding; meat used for pet food

bulls

4

female cattle that have not had a calf

heifers

5

female; has had a calf

cow

6

comes from an animal between 3 weeks to 3 months of age; fed exclusively milk or formula

veal

7

less than 14 months old

lamb

8

greater than 14 months old

mutton

9

between 5 1/2-7 months old

pork

10

what type of muscle makes up the meat

connective tissue

11

connective tissue is high in what

collagen

12

What type of heat do we apply to meat that is high in connective tissue?

moist heat because it converts to gel when exposed to moist heat

13

covers fat; helps retain moisture

adipose fatty tissue

14

marbling; dispersed throughout

intramuscular fat

15

fat content varies depending on

age, genetics, diet, cut, exercise

16

What are some concerns raised by WHO regarding the use of antibiotics in meat

Believed to contribute to antibiotic-resistant bacteria
WHO recommends to phase out use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed

17

what is the purpose of hormones

Given to encourage rapid weight gain (thus reducing cost)

18

Color #1 Influencing Factor on consumer decisions

pigment

19

pigment is influenced by two primary compounds...

myoglobin and hemoglobin

20

controls oxygen uptake

myoglobin

21

delivers oxygen

hemoglobin

22

How does oxygen exposure affect the color of meat?

Changes meat from purplish red to bright red; Meats left in storage may be exposed to less oxygen, which can turn meat brownish-red

23

how does heat affect the color of meat

denaturing of pigments turn meats grayish brown

24

flavor compounds consisting of non-protein, nitrogen containing substances that result from protein metabolism

extractives

25

types of extractives

creatine, creatinine, urea, uric acid.

26

Does inspection guarantee meat will be tender or of high quality?

guarantee of wholesomeness, NOT quality or tenderness

27

When are animals inspected during production?

examine live animals prior to slaughter, as well as carcasses, and observe the meat at various processing stages

28

quality grade is based on..

color, grain, surface texture, fat distribution

29

voluntary and is USDA

grading

30

A standard representing the amount of lean meat on the carcass in proportion to fat, bone, and other inedible parts

yield grade

31

what does tenderness depend on

cut, animals age, heredity, diet, marbling, rigor mortis

32

what is the biggest determinant of tenderness

cut

33

does tenderness decrease or increase with age

decreases with age

34

carcasses are hung in refrigerated units for 1.5 to 6 weeks at around 34 degrees F

dry aging

35

meat is placed in plastic shrink wrap with a high humidity treatment at temperatures around 70 degrees F

fast or wet aging

36

meat is placed in plastic shrink wrap and stored in refrigerated units

vacuum packed aging

37

what are Artificial tenderizing?

Enzymes, salts, and acids
Mechanical tenderization
Electrical stimulation

38

4 types of processing methods

curing, smoking, drying, canning

39

Rely on additives for flavor, shelf life

processing methods

40

what is the best refrigeration degrees

between 32-36

41

what are the wrapping guidelines

Store wrapping for two days; after that, replace wrapping

42

what are the freezing recommendations

Wrap with aluminum foil, heavy plastic, or freezer paper
Keep at 0° F or below

43

how long can you keep meat frozen

most meats 6-12 months
no longer than 3 months for ground beef

44

types of chicken

broilers, roasters, capons, cornish game hens, mature chickens

45

Larger than broilers/fryers

roasters

46

neutered male chickens; 12-14 lbs

capons

47

pet food, soups

mature chickens

48

types of turkeys

fryer-roaster
young hen/young tom

49

what type of turkey is often sold

young hen/young tom

50

other types of poultry

geese, ducks, guinea fowl, pigeons

51

what is the composition of poultry

water, muscle, connective tissue, adipose, bone

52

less myoglobin

white

53

more myoglobin

dark

54

what is the connective tissue

primarily collagen

55

are inspections mandatory or voluntary

mandatory

56

what is the most desirable grade

voluntary; grade A

57

How much should get purchased raw per portion? for turkey and poultry

1/2 lbs per person or slightly more per serving- poultry;
turkey- 1 lb per person

58

Where should frozen poultry get thawed?

in refrigerator

59

what are two preparation safety tips for poultry

prepare and cook stuffing separately
store poultry in refrigerator during brining

60

internal temp for poultry

165

61

What types of color changes do we look for? poultry

golden brown; juices should be clear

62

How long should fresh poultry get stored?

Store at 40oF for up to three days
Store in original packaging

63

what is recommended for frozen poultry

Whole poultry: 0oF for 6-12 months
Leftover cooked poultry: 0oF for 4 months

64

composition of fish and shellfish

lower amounts of collagen
less hydroxyproline
short muscle fibers

65

is inspection for fish voluntary or not

voluntary

66

is grading for fish voluntary or not

voluntary

67

who can sell shellfish?

ONLY fish from certified shippers can be sold

68

finfish purchasing criteria

stiff for freshness, tight scales, stiff body, rigor mortis

69

what are signs of decay for finfish

eyes become concave and gills turn brown

70

who should avoid mercury content

pregnant women

71

what should you purchase in the R months

lobster, crabs, oysters, clams

72

what does the R month refer to

ly purchase shellfish in the months that contain the letter R

73

refers to the presence of rice

sushi

74

finfish should be eaten when

within 1-2 days

75

store in coldest part of refrigerator
wrap well
put on ice

finfish

76

when should fresh shellfish be eaten

eat on day of purchase

77

when should frozen shellfish be eaten

can be stored up to 9 months

78

carb source in milk

lactose( glucose and galactose)

79

protein in milk

casein
whey

80

vitamins in milk

a
d

81

source of color in milk

carotene and B2

82

calcium content

300 mg per 8 oz

83

milk graded is based on

bacterial content

84

grading for milk

voluntary

85

heating milk to kill bacteria

kills 100% of pathogenic bacteria
kills 95-99% of non pathogenic bacteria
denatures proteins

86

Parameter for measuring pasteurization

alkaline phosphataste

87

2 types of pasturization

145 degrees F for 30 minutes
161 degrees F for 15 seconds

88

why is ultra pasteurization hotter than pasteurization

extends shelf life
280F in 2 seconds

89

Ultra-high temperature processing (sterilizing)

280-302oF; 2 seconds

90

creates permanent emulsion

homogenization

91

The breaking up of fat to prevent creaming

homogenization

92

saturated fat is replaced with vegetable oil

filled milk (nutritionally altered)

93

Browning due to the presence of a sugar and protein

mallard reaction

94

Exposure to heat, sunlight, metal, and cow’s diet

can affect flavor of milk

95

coagulation in milk is caused by

heat, acid, enzymes, salt

96

Higher __________ content leads to more stable whipped cream

fat

97

All fluid milk products except unopened UHT milk and some canned milks

refrigerate

98

dry milk should be stored

slightly below room temp 72F

99

Preserved food made from ________ of milk

the curd

100

1) Separate the whey from the curd
2) Remove excess moisture

how to make cheese

101

fresh cheese is Over ____ moisture content

80%; cream cheese

102

soft cheese is WHAT moisture content

50-75%; hispanic cheeses

103

semi hard is what moisture content

40-50%; bleu cheese

104

hard cheese is what moisture content

30-40%; swiss

105

very hard cheese is what moisture content

30% or less; parmesan cheese

106

Yield: 10 pounds of milk = ________ of cheese, _______ of whey

1 pound; 9 pounds

107

Majority of enzymes used are derived from

GMO

108

milk is heated from

72-95F

109

can be added to speed up coagulation in milk

calcium chloride

110

safe dairy food for people who are lactose intolerant

cheese

111

increases exposed surface area; allow for more evaporation

cutting

112

allows for greater moisture evaporation

heating

113

remove water via osmosis

salting

114

curd is melted into a single mass

knitting

115

pressing out additional moisture (H20)


pressing

116

aging of cheese in controlled conditions of humidity and temperature

curing

117

physical and chemical changes that occur during the curing period

ripening

118

primost, mysost, gjetost, ricotta

whey cheese

119

examples of processed cheeses

american cheese, cheez wiz, velveeta

120

cheeses at room temp

semi hard and hard

121

serving cheese chilled

unripened

122

dry storage of cheese

processed cheese and very hard cheese

123

type of cheese that is okay to freeze

hard

124

who conducts egg inspections

USDA Poultry Division

125

Restricted eggs: those that fail inspection & are not sold whole to consumer

“checks”- has cracks prior to making it to retail market
“meat spots”-blood in the albumin or yolk
“dirties”- when greater than 25% (> 25%) of the shell is covered in dirt
“leakers”- albumin is leaking out of the shell
“inedible”- green yolk or albumen imperfections

126

Candling: holding egg against light to see defects through shell
Measuring Haugh units
Evaluating appearance: shell, white, yolk, and air cell

methods for grading

127

height of egg white

haugh units

128

why are egg substitutes a thing

Made in response to consumer demand for low cholesterol egg products
Often have higher sodium content than eggs

129

lower cholesterol, and increase omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E

hen diet

130

bind water soluble and water insoluble compounds together

emulsifying

131

adhesive in breading's and batters

binding

132

albumen; eggs can drastically increase volume

foaming

133

in the formation of ice or sugar crystals

interfering

134

egg whites start to coagulate at _______

140F

135

egg yolks start to coagulate at

144F

136

if solutes are added to eggs,

coagulation temp increases

137

shelf life of refrigerated whole eggs

1 month

138

Separated egg yolks submerged in water: ______

2 days

139

Egg whites in glass container: ___

4 days

140

Storage eggs (commercial use): ___

6 months

141

Can’t freeze whole egg in shell so what should you do

crack open egg then freeze

142

At home, add 1 T of sugar or ½ t of salt for every cup of blended eggs

to freeze egg whites or yolks

143

what is better for tough cuts of meat due to the higher content of connective tissue.

moist heat