Test 1 Flashcards Preview

Critical Care > Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (45)
Loading flashcards...
1

Normal Cardiac Output (CO)

4-8 L/min

2

Preload definition

End diastolic VOLUME that stretches the right or left ventricle of the heart

3

Afterload definition

PRESURE/RESISTANCE against which the heart must work to eject blood during systole

4

Contractility definition

Muscle function presence

5

Normal Cardiac Index (CI)

2.5-4

6

Mean Central Venous Pressure (CVP) in right atria

2-10 mmHg

7

Normal SVR

800-1200

8

Normal PVR

100-250

9

MAP Formula

(2 x diastolic + systolic)/3

10

Normal MAP

70-100

11

Phlebostatic axis is where?

4th intercostal space, midaxillary line

12

Dicrotic Notch on wave form represents:

Closing of aortic valve

13

Pulmonary Artery Catheter (AKA Swan Ganz) measures:

Left heart pressures

14

Pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PAD, PAOP) represents pressure on which side of the heart?

Left side

15

Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAS) represents pressure on which side of the heart?

Right side

16

What causes increased CVP?

Over-hydration, HF, positive pressure breathing (anything ventilator related)

17

What causes decreased CVP?

Hypovolemia, negative pressure breathing (retractions while breathing)

18

Normal Pulmonary Artery Pressure

Systolic: 20-30
Diastolic: 8-12

19

Right ventricular pressure

Systolic: 30-40
Diastolic: 5

20

Normal PAOP (Wedge pressure)

6-12 mmHg

21

What is the clutching of the chest accompanied with chest pain called?

Levine's sign

22

Name and describe the three types of angina

Stable: predictable
Crescendo: pain with minimal exertion, no enzyme change
Variant (Prinzmetal): caused by vasospasm

23

What is the clinical difference between Non-ST-segment elevation ACS and Non-ST-segment elevation MI?

There is a presence of cardiac enzymes in NSTEMI (troponin-death of cardiac tissue).

24

What is the difference between a STEMI and NSTEMI?

STEMI:
-Clot has fully occluded coronary artery
-ST segment elevation
-Elevated enzymes (super high)
NSTEMI:
-Clot has partially occluded
-No ST segment elevation
-Elevated enzymes

25

What arrhythmia is common with right coronary artery occlusion?

Bradycardia

26

Name 6 nursing interventions for decreased cardiac perfusion:

O2, ASA, morphine, NTG, continuous EKG, anxiety reduction

27

What are supportive therapies for post-MI hypothermic Tx?

Monitoring
Labs- Potassium (hypokalemia is treated)
Shivering- use of paralytics to prevent

28

How do you know TPA has worked?

-Arrhythmias (Vtach, PVCs, Idioventricular)
-Decreased ST
-Pain resolution
-CK levels increase ("washout")

29

PCA complications (8)

Allergic reactions, arrhythmias, CA rupture, re-occlusion, bleeding in groin area, CVA, renal issues (due to contrast dye), oversedation

30

What is the difference between an aneurysm and a dissection?

Aneurysm is a localized area of dilation of the vessel wall which results in disturbed blood flow.

Dissection is a tear in the layers of the aortic wall which results in a "false" lumen.