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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (27)
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1

Which hormone indicates to the pituitary to adjust thyroid hormones/stimulating hormones?

T4

2

What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?

Graves Disease

3

A dysfunction of the thyroid, you would expect to see what levels of TSH and T3/T4?

High TSH and low T3/T4

4

A dysfunction of the pituitary, you would expect to see what levels of TSH and T3/T4?

Low levels of both

5

How is hyperthyroidism managed?

-Antithyroid drugs (methimazole, PTU)
-Ablation (radioactive, surgery)
-Iodides (SSKIs-decrease symptoms)
-Beta blockers (decrease twitchy symptoms)

6

What is the worst case scenario of hyperthyroidism?

Thyrotoxicosis or Thyroid Storm

7

Which lab value should be monitored post op thyroidectomy?

Calcium- hypocalcemia can occur if the parathyroid glands are taken out unintentionally with the thyroid

8

What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism? What is the etiology?

Hashimotos thyroiditis- autoimmune destruction of gland

9

What is the worst case scenario of hypothyroidism?

Myxedema coma

10

What disease is associated with high levels of adrenal hormones (hypercortisolism)?

Cushing's Disease

11

What disease is associated with low levels of adrenal hormones (hypocortisolism)?

Addison's Disease

12

ACTH stimulates what to produce what?

Adrenal cortex to produce cortisol

13

What role does cortisol play in blood sugar regulation?

Cortisol allows the sugar to be available for the body to utilize it (gluconeogenesis)

14

What are the functions of cortisol/glucocorticoid?

-Gluconeogenesis (blood sugar stuff)
-Converts proteins into carbs
-Enhances centralized fat deposition
-Depresses immune response
-Fluid and electrolyte balance

15

What is a complication of high aldosterone levels?

Increased Na and water retention

16

What level of ACTH would you expect to see in a patient who is taking prednisone (steroids in general)?

Low ACTH- body sees high levels of cortisol and thinks it doesn't need to produce more

17

What is a major complication of Cushing's?

Infection

18

Which life threatening lab value can be increased from adrenal insufficiency (Addison's)?

Potassium (as a result of low Na)

19

Pheochromocytoma can often be confused with what? And why?

Panic attacks because they present similarly except for an extremely high BP

20

What is the primary fasting hormone which affects BG?

Glucagon

21

What is the main difference of clinical presentation in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and HHNS?

HHNS: no Ketones in urine and normal pH

22

Normal GFR

125 mL/min

23

Define RIFLE acronym for AKI

R isk- first stage of AKI - Creatinine ↑x1.5 or GFR ↓25%
I njury- second stage - Creatinine ↑x2 or GFR ↓50%
F ailure- third stage - Creatinine ↑x3 or GFR ↓75% or Creatinine >4mg/dL
L oss- fourth stage - persistent AKI >4wk
E SRD- complete loss of kidney function >3 months

24

What is the most common AKI?

Prerenal

25

Describe the three causes of AKI

Prerenal: sudden and severe drop in BP or interruption of blood flow to the kidneys from severe injiry or illness (BP)
Intrarenal: Direct damage to the kidneys by inflammation, toxins, drugs, infection, or reduced blood supply (Kidney)
Postrenal: Sudden obstruction of urine flow due to enlarged prostate, kidney stones, bladder tumor, or injury (organs below the kidneys)

26

What are indications for renal replacement therapy?

Acidosis (pH <7.25)
Electrolytes (hyperkalemia, hyperphos, hypermag)
Ingestions (limited salt)
Overload volume
Uremia complications (ALOC, pericarditis)

27

Which type of organ rejection is reversible?

Acute