Flashcards in Test 1 Blueprint (1) Deck (66):
Sperm development is stimulated by:
Sperm best survive in an ____ environment.
Seminal fluid is ____ to sperm to keep it viable.
Seminal fluid is made up of secretions from the ____ ____ and the ____ ____.
Is the pH of the seminal fluid is alkaline or acidic? Why?
Helps to neutralize the acidic female vagina to maintain sperm viability
How long do sperm survive?
How long do ova survive?
Development of the ova in the female is called:
Maturation and ovulation is ____.
Female have a lifetime of oocytes by ___ weeks.
Lutenizing hormone is secreted from the ___ ___ gland and causes ___ to occur.
Ovum is the period of development from ____ to day ____.
The corpus luteum continues to secrete ____ and ____ until the ____ takes over at about ____ months gestation.
Where does conception usually occur?
In the outer 1/3 of the fallopian tubes
When does the zygote reach the uterus?
3 to 4 days
During pregnancy, progesterone has what effect on smooth muscle?
Progesterone is ____; it prevents spontaneous abortion by decreasing what?
Implantation occurs ____ days after conception.
Implantation occurs when estrogen and progesterone production by the ____ ____ is at its highest peak.
Ovulation occurs ___ before the next menstrual period.
14 +/- 2 days
Premenopausal women start to have decreased bleeding and blood level because of what 2 hormones?
estrogen and progesterone
What structures of the blastocyst extend into the maternal blood supply in the process of implantation?
Chorionic villi develop out of what?
What does hyaluronidase help sperm do?
penetrate the corona radiata of the ovum
What part of the sperm releases hyaluronidase?
What is the corona radiata?
the outside membrane of the ova
The blastocyte implants in ____ days after conception.
What is the spinnbarkeit sign?
the cervical mucus becomes thin and stretchy during ovulation
What is isoimmunization?
The Rh- mother and Rh+ fetus' blood mixes causing the mother's blood to make antibodies.
What product is administered to the mom to prevent isoimmunization?
RhoGam (Rh Immune Globulin)
When is RhoGam given to the mom?
28 weeks gestation
Within 72 hrs after delivery
After invasive procedures (like amniocentesis)
When does the heart start to beat?
beats by 3rd week
Fetal heart can be seen by US by ___ weeks.
Fetal heart beat heard by doppler by ___ weeks.
What is a normal fetal heart rate?
Dominant or recessive? Characteristic will be expressed in the individual even if its partner gene is different.
Dominant or recessive? Characteristic will be expressed only if carried by both chromosomes of a pair.
What is X-linked dominant?
A defective dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome. Expressed in both male/female offspring who inherit the defective gene.
What is autosomal recessive inheritance?
Both genes of a pair must be abnormal for a trait (disorder) to be expressed. Carriers of the trait are unaffected clinically, but may pass the trait to offspring.
What are 3 examples of autosomal recessive interitance diseases?
Sickle Cell Anemia
What is X-linked recessive?
A defective gene is carried only on the X-chromosome, so females are predominantly carriers b/c they have a Y.
What are 3 examples of X-linked recessive disorders?
xx = ____
xx = has the disease
Xx = carrier
What is glycosuria?
Why do we test for it?
Sugar in the urine
Sign of gestational diabetes
Which 2 hormones DECREASE in the perimenopausal stage?
Review the fetal circulation:
(splits into 2 branches)
Branch 1: to liver
Branch 2: ductus vensosus
Inferior vena cava
What vessel does fetal blood mix with deoxygenated blood from the legs and abdomen?
What vessel does fetal blood mix with deoxygenated blood returning from fetal lungs?
What vessel shunts umbilical vein blood directly to vena cava allowing it to bypass the liver?
What is the fetal opening between the right and left atrium?
What vessel bypasses the lungs because they do not function for gas exchange?
How many arteries and veins in umbilical cord?
What does folic acid prevent?
neural tube defects
How much folic acid should mom take in daily?
(500 mcg when lactating)
What foods contain folate?
Green leafy veggies
What does iron help prevent?
What foods inhibit iron absorption?
bran, milk, egg yolks, coffee/tea, oxalate (spinach)
What enhances iron absorption?
Iron: with food or on an empty stomach?
How much iron during pregnancy? When to start?
start by 12 weeks
What foods contain iron?
whole grain/enriched breads
dark leafy greens
How much calcium during pregnancy?
What foods contain calcium?
sardines/fish with bones
dark green leafy veggies
How much protein during pregnancy?
46 g 1st trimester
71 g 2nd & 3rd
What foods contain protein?