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Flashcards in Test 1 Blueprint (1) Deck (66):
1

Sperm development is stimulated by:

testosterone

2

Sperm best survive in an ____ environment.

alkaline

3

Seminal fluid is ____ to sperm to keep it viable.

neutrative

4

Seminal fluid is made up of secretions from the ____ ____ and the ____ ____.

seminal vesicles
prostate gland

5

Is the pH of the seminal fluid is alkaline or acidic? Why?

alkaline
Helps to neutralize the acidic female vagina to maintain sperm viability

6

How long do sperm survive?

48-72 hrs

7

How long do ova survive?

24 hrs

8

Development of the ova in the female is called:

oogenesis

9

Maturation and ovulation is ____.

cyclic

10

Female have a lifetime of oocytes by ___ weeks.

12

11

Lutenizing hormone is secreted from the ___ ___ gland and causes ___ to occur.

anterior pituitary
ovulation

12

Ovum is the period of development from ____ to day ____.

conception
day 14

13

The corpus luteum continues to secrete ____ and ____ until the ____ takes over at about ____ months gestation.

progesterone
estrogen
placenta
3 months

14

Where does conception usually occur?

In the outer 1/3 of the fallopian tubes

15

When does the zygote reach the uterus?

3 to 4 days

16

During pregnancy, progesterone has what effect on smooth muscle?

Relaxes

17

Progesterone is ____; it prevents spontaneous abortion by decreasing what?

pro-life
uterine contractility

18

Implantation occurs ____ days after conception.

6-10 days

19

Implantation occurs when estrogen and progesterone production by the ____ ____ is at its highest peak.

corpus luteum

20

Ovulation occurs ___ before the next menstrual period.

14 +/- 2 days

21

Premenopausal women start to have decreased bleeding and blood level because of what 2 hormones?

estrogen and progesterone

22

What structures of the blastocyst extend into the maternal blood supply in the process of implantation?

chorionic villi

23

Chorionic villi develop out of what?

the trophoblast

24

What does hyaluronidase help sperm do?

penetrate the corona radiata of the ovum

25

What part of the sperm releases hyaluronidase?

acrosomal cap

26

What is the corona radiata?

the outside membrane of the ova

27

The blastocyte implants in ____ days after conception.

6

28

What is the spinnbarkeit sign?

the cervical mucus becomes thin and stretchy during ovulation

29

What is isoimmunization?

The Rh- mother and Rh+ fetus' blood mixes causing the mother's blood to make antibodies.

30

What product is administered to the mom to prevent isoimmunization?

RhoGam (Rh Immune Globulin)

31

When is RhoGam given to the mom?

28 weeks gestation
Within 72 hrs after delivery
After invasive procedures (like amniocentesis)

32

When does the heart start to beat?

beats by 3rd week

33

Fetal heart can be seen by US by ___ weeks.

8

34

Fetal heart beat heard by doppler by ___ weeks.

10-12

35

What is a normal fetal heart rate?

110-160

36

Dominant or recessive? Characteristic will be expressed in the individual even if its partner gene is different.

Dominant

37

Dominant or recessive? Characteristic will be expressed only if carried by both chromosomes of a pair.

Recessive

38

What is X-linked dominant?

A defective dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome. Expressed in both male/female offspring who inherit the defective gene.

39

What is autosomal recessive inheritance?

Both genes of a pair must be abnormal for a trait (disorder) to be expressed. Carriers of the trait are unaffected clinically, but may pass the trait to offspring.

40

What are 3 examples of autosomal recessive interitance diseases?

Tay Sachs
Sickle Cell Anemia
Cystic Fibrosis

41

What is X-linked recessive?

A defective gene is carried only on the X-chromosome, so females are predominantly carriers b/c they have a Y.

42

What are 3 examples of X-linked recessive disorders?

color blindness
muscular dystrophy
hemophilia

43

Genetics codes:
xx = ____
Xx= ____

xx = has the disease
Xx = carrier

44

What is glycosuria?
Why do we test for it?

Sugar in the urine
Sign of gestational diabetes

45

Which 2 hormones DECREASE in the perimenopausal stage?

progesterone
estrogen

46

Review the fetal circulation:

Placenta
Umbilical vein
Fetal abdomen
(splits into 2 branches)
Branch 1: to liver
Branch 2: ductus vensosus
Inferior vena cava
Right atrium
Foramen ovale
Left atrium
Left ventricle
Aorta
Systemic circuit

47

What vessel does fetal blood mix with deoxygenated blood from the legs and abdomen?

ductus venosus

48

What vessel does fetal blood mix with deoxygenated blood returning from fetal lungs?

ductus arteriosus

49

What vessel shunts umbilical vein blood directly to vena cava allowing it to bypass the liver?

ductus venosus

50

What is the fetal opening between the right and left atrium?

foramen ovale

51

What vessel bypasses the lungs because they do not function for gas exchange?

ductus arteriosus

52

How many arteries and veins in umbilical cord?

2 arteries
1 vein

53

What does folic acid prevent?

neural tube defects

54

How much folic acid should mom take in daily?

600 mcg
(500 mcg when lactating)

55

What foods contain folate?

Green leafy veggies
Grains
Oranges
Broccoli
Asparagus
Artichokes
Liver

56

What does iron help prevent?

anemia

57

What foods inhibit iron absorption?

bran, milk, egg yolks, coffee/tea, oxalate (spinach)

58

What enhances iron absorption?

vitamin C

59

Iron: with food or on an empty stomach?

empty stomach

60

How much iron during pregnancy? When to start?

30 mg/day
start by 12 weeks

61

What foods contain iron?

Liver
meats
whole grain/enriched breads
dark leafy greens
legumes
dried fruits

62

How much calcium during pregnancy?

600 mg

63

What foods contain calcium?

dairy
sardines/fish with bones
dark green leafy veggies
baked beans
tortillas

64

How much protein during pregnancy?

46 g 1st trimester
71 g 2nd & 3rd

65

What foods contain protein?

meats/eggs
dairy
legumes
nuts/grains

66

What does extra sodium lead to?

edema