Flashcards in Test 1 Blueprint (2) Deck (50):
What fetal/baby problems can smoking during pregnancy cause?
low birth weight
intrauterine growth restriction
What maternal problems can smoking during pregnancy cause?
preterm rupture of membranes
What health issues can children develop later in life as a result of mothers smoking?
What vitamin do women who smoke need more of?
Smoking may impair ____.
Alcohol is a known ____.
What direct effects can alcohol have during the embryonic and fetal stages?
altered brain morphology
fetal alcohol syndrome
alcohol related birth defects
What time frame is the most susceptible to alcohol?
first 6 weeks
What is the most preventable cause of cognitive disability?
alcohol related effects
How much alcohol is safe to drink during pregnancy?
Vasoconstrictor drugs constrict arteries and cause ___ ___ to the baby. What can this cause?
Besides antacids, what can someone do to reduce heartburn?
gum, mint, hard candy
sit up after eating
avoid fatty, fried foods and overeating
Which STI is the oldest with the 2nd highest occurance and highly communicable?
What age group is most at risk for gonorrhea?
women age 15-24
What symptoms are seen with gonorrhea?
- normally asymptomatic
- purulent endocervical discharge
- menstrual irregularities, abdominal pain, painful menses
What are the 2 types of gonorrhea?
2) ophthalmia neonatorum
Which type of gonorrhea involves premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, chorioamnionitis, neonatal sepsis, intrauterine growth restriction, maternal postpartum sepsis?
Which type of gonorrhea is the most common manifestation of neonatal gonococcal infection and could lead to blindness if untreated?
When can transmission of HIV occur from mom to baby?
What type of delivery is required to reduce the chance of HIV transmission from mom to baby?
What situations during L&D could lead to the fetus contracting HIV?
Anything that could break the skin of the fetus:
- artificial rupture of membranes
- fetal scalp electrode
- scalp pH sampling
- use of vaccum/forceps
Can an HIV infected mom breastfeed baby?
How is syphilis transmitted?
What are the 3 stages of syphilis?
Name the stage of syphilis: primary lesion, painless papule to an ulcer in 5 to 90 days
Name the stage of syphilis: widespread symmetric maculopapular rash on palms and soles, lymphadenopathy, fever, HA, malaise. Lasts 6 weeks to 6 months.
Where might condylomata lata develop during a syphilis outbreak?
vulva, perineum, or anus
Name the stage of syphilis: asymptomatic, can only be detected with serologic testing.
If latent syphilis infections are left untreated, ____ syphilis will develop.
What can occur with tertiary syphilis?
neurologic, CV, musculoskeletal, or multi-organ system failure
What test is performed to detect syphilis?
RPR; rapid plasma reagent
What is the most common STI?
What does chlamydia lead to?
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
- cervical ulcerations
Cervical ulcerations increase the risk of acquiring ___.
Past chlamydial infections are associated with:
tubal factor infertility
Why should doxycycline not be administered to a pregnant woman?
turns baby's teeth yellow
What type of exercises can a pregnant woman perform to avoid/treat leg cramps?
stand holding chair and dorsiflex foot or have another person do it
What should we be concerned about with persistent or leg pain?
Education for woman performing pregnancy test:
1) first void in a.m.
2) Meds can interfere with accuracy
3) HCG detected 4 days after implantation
What meds can interfere with pregnancy test? How?
- anticonvulsants & tranquilizers: false positives
- diuretics and promethazine - false negatives
What are the 3 types of pregnancy signs?
- presumptive - woman feels (not reliable)
- probable - examiner observes (strong but inconclusive)
- positive - from fetus (confirmation)
Amenorrhea, fatigue, and breast changes are ____ signs.
Hegar sign, ballottement, pregnancy test are ____ signs.
Fetal heart tones, visualizing fetus, fetal movements are ____ signs.
IUD not recommended for:
- women who haven't been pregnant (could tear cervix b/c so tight)
- If pregnancy occurs, risk of miscarriage and preterm labor
Oral contraceptives not recommended if history of:
- smoking (esp over 35)
- pulmonary embolism
- breast cancer (estrogen feeds cancer)
- impaired liver function
- severe HTN
Advanced age and smoking increase the risk of ___ with oral contraceptive use.
Teaching for oral contraceptives:
- yearly exams
- missed one pill less than 12 hrs, take pill immediately then back on track
- missed one pill more than 12 hrs or more than one pill, take pill immediately then back on track (back up method for 7 days)
What effect does St. John's Wart have on oral contraceptive effectiveness?