Test 1 - Chapter 3 - Theories of Personality Development (Theory PPT also) Flashcards Preview

Mental Health > Test 1 - Chapter 3 - Theories of Personality Development (Theory PPT also) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 - Chapter 3 - Theories of Personality Development (Theory PPT also) Deck (43):

Erikson's theory of development (a psychosocial theory)

Infants, age birth to 1 year old

Trust vs mistrust

Baby learns to trust people if it cries and someone comes running to take care of it.

If no one comes when the baby cries, the baby has no hope and develops mistrust for others.


Erikson's theory of development

Toddler, age 1 - 3

Autonomy vs shame and doubt

Remember the child begins to walk around this age and find autonomy in his/her ability to leave mom and dad.

If parents do not allow the child to be autonomous, they instill shame and doubt. The child is shamed and doubts they are good enough to be independent (autonomous)


Erikson's theory of development

childhood/early school/preschool/daycare, age 3-6

Initiative vs guilt

Daycare and preschool age...

Initiative is the ability to assess and initiate things independently. Kids at this age ask a lot of questions. They frequently say "let me do it!"
If they are not allowed to and are shut down when asking questions, they feel guilt as though they are annoying others by being curious.


Erikson's theory of development

School, age 6-12

Industry (hard work) vs Inferiority

Industry in this case means hard work. Students in this age group will put in hard work to gain approval of teachers and peers.

If they do not gain approval they will feel inferior or less than.


Erikson's theory of development

age 12-20, puberty - graduation/middle school through starting college

Identity vs Role Confusion

From age 12 - 20 we usually change our hair, our clothing style numerous times. Our bodies change a lot during this time. We are trying to form an identity.

If the person does not find their identity and where they fit in, they will experience role confusion.


Erikson's theory of development

20-30, young adulthood

Intimacy vs isolation

People in this age group are usually looking to form intimate relationships with other. If they do not find themselves in a satisfying relationship, they will feel isolated.


Erikson's theory of development

30-65 Middle adulthood, working years

Generativity vs stagnation

During this age, we are working. We are raising future generations. We are either giving back to generation through work or through raising children. I

If we fail to generate productively for future generations, we are unproductive or stagnant.


Erikson's theory of development

65- death, retired

Integrity vs despair

Integrity means the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral uprightness; the state of being whole and undivided. Can one look back and feel whole? DId one do their best to leave behind something they can be proud of?

If not, the person will feel despair.


According to Freud:

The ___ is present at birth and it drives us to seek immediate gratification. It is impulsive and irrational.


Id is impulse deriven to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.

"Those behaviors that follow the principles of "if it feels good, do it."


"I found this wallet and will keep the money " is an example of id, ego or superego?



Mom and dad are gone, LET'S PARTAY!!! is an example of id, ego or superego?



"I will have sex with whoever I please, whenever I please." is an example of id, ego or superego?



According to Freud:

The ____, also called the rational self, serves as the mediator; that is, to maintain harmony among the external world, the id, and the super ego.


Ego serves to delay immediate impulse gratification, bringing reality into consideration. Rationalizes before deciding.

Reflect the rational part of the personality. An effort is made to delay gratification. Ego uses defense mechanisms to cope and regain control over impulses.


I already have money, and the person who lost this wallet might be broke" is an example of id, ego or supergo?

ego (middle road)


"Mom and dad said no friends over while they are away...too risky" is an example of id, ego or superego?



According to Freud:

The ______ inhibits impulses that are deemed wrong, and it sometimes called the conscience. It assists in the control of id impulses.


Behaviors are uncompromsing and rigid, based on morals and society. Strives for perfection.


"It is never right to take something that doesn't belong to you" is an example of...



"Never disobey your parents" is an example of ...


Notice both superego examples do not battle between right and wrong or bad and good, it goes for the "highest viewpoint" right away without question. Moral high ground.


Freud classified the mind into three groups which are ?

conscious - all memories that remain within the individual's awareness. SMALLEST part (tip of the iceberg) Ex: phone numbers, birthdays, holidays, etc.

preconscious - forgotten memories; suppressed memories.

unconscious - unpleasant or nonessential memories. Repressed. Biggest amount of the iceberg, below surface.


Stages in Freud's personality development are?


Oral - oral gratification relieves anxiety (smoking, chewing nails, sucking bottle, etc)

Anal - learning independence and control (control your anus...freud is whack. I didn't realize I got my personality from not shitting) (1.5-3) Adults are anal retentive and controlling.

Phallic - Id with parent of same gender. Develops sexual identity. Kid gets crush on their parent. (3-6)

Latency - sexually repressed. The sexual identity you just develops becomes latent. Prefer to build relationships with same sex - friends. (6-12)

Genital - libido reawakened. Independence from parents, find a mate (13-20)


T or F: Cathexis means to dwell on a person, idea or object in an attempt to achieve gratification.

True. Alcohol is an example. Person dwells on it, non stop and instinctively drinks. Id impulse.


T or F: anticathexis is the use of energy by the ego and superego to control the id.

An imbalance between cathexis and anticathexis per Freud was the cause of internal conflict


What is the only upside to defense mechanisms?

Reduces anxiety


Freud is what type of theory?


There is no cognitive thinking part of the person in his theory. He felt it was all instinctual and impulsive....


In Sullivan's INTERpersonal theory, he included the concept of self-system. It is a collection of experiences adopted to protect against anxiety. What are the three components of this self system?

Side note: mirroring can be a part of this theory

1. good me - develops per positive feedback; now knows do that thing--> get good feedback --> continue doing that

2. bad me - develops per negative feedback. Child learns to avoid these behaviors.

3. NOT me - when intense anxiety is felt, child denies these feelings for relief. After sometime of denying, become not me but someone else.


In Sullivans stage of personality development, there are six stages. Here is an overview....

birth to 1.5 - same as freud, oral behaviors to satisfy the Id.

1.5-6 years - realizes delayed gratification is ok and may result in more lasting reward AND PARENT APPROVAL. (If you wait five minutes to eat your marshmallow, I will give you two marshmallows)

6-9 years - RELATIONSHPIS with peer groups (competition, cooperation, and compromise)

9-12 years - relationships with persons of same gender. Shows love and affection.

12-14 - struggles with developsing sense of identity that is separate form parents. Looking for relationships with opposite gender. LUST. Puberty.

14-21 - person tries to achieve Interdependence within society and lasting relationship.


Piaget focused on the process of THINKING. His theory is _____ theory



Piaget's theory has four phases. The first phase is sensorimotor, from birth to 2 years. What is the main importance of this phase?

beginning of thought stage. object permanence (child knows object still exists even when not present - like mom!)


The 2nd stage of Piaget's theory is called preoperational. Ages 2-6. What is preoperational thought? Example?

preoperational thought is characterized by egocentrism (self centered behavior). Won't share toys. Doesn't understand that other people can think differently. If they see water poured from a short glass into a taller/skinny glass, they assume there's more water.


The 3rd stage of Piaget's theory is called concrete operations. Ages 6-12. Describe this stage.

Develops more logic but concrete still predominates. "How did you get here?" The bus. This child will see water poured from a short glass into a taller skinnier glass but realize the amount of water is the same in both.


The 4th stage of Piaget's theory is called Formal operations. Ages 12+. Describe this stage.

Can think abstractly (what if? hypothesize/theorize/etc). Cognitive maturity reached.


A three year old child refuses to share his toys at daycare. What stage of Piaget is this child in?



Kohlberg's theory of moral develoment has three levels: preconventional,conventional, and postconvential. What is the significant piece to each?

preconventional - person acts to avoid punishment or gain reward. Desire to satisfy ones own needs. "I'll do it for something in return."

conventional - person acts to gain approval or within the law "I'll do it because you asked me to." or "i'll do it because it is the law."

postconventional - acts based on morals and universal laws, honor and justice.


T or F: psychodynamic therapy is short term and is used to improve functioning, not restructure the personality.



T or F: According to theory, stalls in psychosexual or social stages may create a "fixation" at that time and be possible etiology for psychiatric disorders.


Unsuccessful areas can cause issues down the road.


Peplau gave us four phases of the nurse-client relationship: Orientation, Identification, Exploitation, Resolution.

Describe key points for each.

Orientation - client/nurse work together to clarify/define problem

Identification - patient identifies who is to offer help if needed. Client may become interdependent, dependent, or isolated with/to/from nurse.

Exploitation - exploit means to take full advantage of...Here the client takes full advantage of the services offered.

Resolution - Direct result of successful completion of the first three phases. Client gains independence.


What are the four levels of anxiety that Peplau developed?



What are characteristics of the self-actualized person according to Maslow?

Tolerance, self-accepting, inner directed, spontaneous. creative, autonomous, caring, capable of intense interpersonal relationships, sense of humor, need for solitude and privacy, and an open attitude toward life.


There are 5 categories on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Put them in order by starting from the most basic (bottom of the pyramid)

1. Physiological needs is the most basic (air, water, food)
2. Safety (protect your body - protect your physio)
3. Love and belonging
4. Esteem/Self-esteem
5. Self-actualization


T or F: What you think is all important and can determine what you do and how you feel according to Albert Ellis' cognitive theory.


He also said that you need to develop ideas of the world to survive as a child, but hanging onto those ideas into adulthood is irrational (princess/prince Levy mentioned)


Explain what a sociocultural theory states about behavior.

1. Behavior can only be understood is it is considered within a society/culture (Might be normal to talk to "angels" in one country but considered crazy in another).

2. Helplessness is learned and leads to powerlessness. This is especially common with uneducated, women, poor, etc.


There are eight focal topics of social psychiatry: social causation, course of mental illness influenced by family/community/society, prevention, treatment, govt/community programs, cultural influence, social control mechanisms, possible existence of a sick society.

In regard to prevention - explain primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary - prevent (give a talk about smoking and preventing cancer)

Secondary - Treat/Limit (perform surgery to remove cancer)

Tertiary - Cope with (discharge)


Transactional analysis