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Flashcards in test 1 chapters 3 and 4 Deck (86)
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1

the image of who you are; consists of your feelings and thoughs about your strengths and weaknesses, your abilities and limitations, and your aspirations and worldview

self-concept

2

represents the extent to which you know yourself, your strengths, and your weaknesses, your thoughts and feelings, and your personality tendencies

self-awareness

3

emphasizes that the several aspects of the self are not separate pieces but are interactive parts of a whole

johari model

4

represents all the info about you-behaviors, attitudes, feelings, desires, motivations, and ideas-that you and others know skin color, sex to age, political and religious affiliations, and financial situations, willing to open yourself up to different people

open self- dealing with johari model

5

represents all the things about you that others know but of which you're ignorant, distinct body odor, defense mechanisms, fight strategies, rubbing nose when angry

blind self-johari model

6

contains all that you know of yourself that you keep secret

hidden self- johari model

7

represents truths about yourself that neither you not others know

unknown self- Johari model

8

a measure of how valuable you think you are

self esteem

9

refers to your thinking about your strengths and weaknesses, about who you are versus who you would like to be

cognitive self esteem

10

refers to your feelings about yourself in light of your analysis of strengths and weaknesses

affective self esteem

11

refers to verbal and nonverbal behaviors such as your disclosures, your assertiveness, your conflict strategies, your gestures

behavioral self esteem

12

ideas you have about yourself that are unproductive or that make it more difficult for you to achieve your goals

self destructive beliefs

13

refers to the tendency to disregard outward signs of success and to consider yourself an imposter, a fake, a fraud, one who doesnt really deserve to be considered successful

imposter phenomenon

14

simply a statement asserting that something is true; positive statements about yourself, statements asserting that something good or positive is true of you.

affirmation

15

the process by which you become aware of objects, events, and especially people through your senses: sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing

perception

16

a general term that includes selective attention and selective exposure

selective perception

17

you attend to those things that you anticipate will fulfill your needs or will prove enjoyable

selective attention

18

expose yourself to people or messages that confirm your existing beliefs, contribute to your objectives, or prove satisfying in some way.

selective exposure

19

proximity

physical closeness

20

things that are physically closeness are perceived as belonging together and forming a unit

similarity

21

the opposite of similarity; when items are very different from each other, you can conclude that they dont belong together

contrast

22

mental templates that help you organize the millions of items of information you come into contact with every day as well as those you already have in memory

schemata

23

an organized body of information about some action, event or procedure

script

24

greatly influenced by your ;experiences; needs; wants; values; beliefs about they way things are or should be; expectations; physical and emotional state and so on; influenced by your rules, schemata, and scripts as well as by your gender

interpretation-evaluation

25

assessing what you have stored in memory

recall

26

sometimes referred to as person perception; consists of a variety of processes that you go through in forming an impression of another person

impression formation

27

is a prediction that comes true because you act on it as if it were true

self fulfilling prophecy

28

example of self-fulfilling prophecy; expected to do well and did do well -- became what their teachers though they were

pygmalion effect

29

a function of personality theory; if you believe a person has positive qualities, you are more likley to infer that she or he also possesses other positive qualities

halo effect

30

if you know a person possesses several negative qualities, you are more likey to infer that the person also has other negative qualities

reverse halo effect

31

leads you to see what you expect or want to see

perceptual accentuation

32

if what comes first exerts the most influence

primacy effect

33

if what comes last or most recent exerts most influence

recency effect

34

the tendency to maintain a balance among perception or attitudes

consistency

35

when you take credit for the positive and deny responsibility for the negative

self serving bias

36

the tendency to single out one or two obvious characteristics of a person and attribute everything that person does to this one or these two characteristsics

overattribution

37

occurs when you assess someone's behavior but overvalue the contribution of internal factors(person's personality) and undervalue the influence of external factors (context or situation the person is in); conclude that people do what they do because thats the kind of people they are, not bc of the situation they are in

fundamental attribution error

38

you evaluate what a person did on the basis of the control you perceive this person to have had on his or her behavior

attribution of control

39

another way to reduce uncertainty and to make your perceptions more accurate

perception checking

40

recognizing and being sensitive to cultural differences

cultural sensitivity

41

has to do with processes you go through to communicate the image of yourself that you want others to have of you; how to communicate to others the image of yourself you want them to see

impression management

42

used to make ourselves appear likeable; to be liked, to be thought of highly to be seen in the right light

politeness strategies and affinity seeking

43

the desire to be viewed positively by others, to be thought of favorably

positive face

44

the desire to be autonomous, to have the right to do as we wish

negative face

45

supported by contemporary research; they seek to establish your competence, character, and charisma; to be seen as competent , dynamic

credibility strategies

46

if you were about to tackle a difficult task and were concerned that you might fail; to excuse actual or possible future failure

self-handicapping strategies

47

if you want to be taken care of and protected or simply want someone to come to your aid; to secure help by making yourself seem unable to do task

self-deprecating strategies

48

want to get people to see you as a leader, as someone to be followed in thought perhaps in behavior;be persuasive to be in control, to be followed, to be the leader

influencing strategies

49

you carefully monitor what you say or do; to hide faults, to emphasize the positive and minimize the negative

self-monitoring strategies

50

if you see yourself as the life of the party, you'll tell jokes and try to amuse people; to seek reassurance of ones self-image, to be recognized for who you are

image confirming strategy to confirm self image

51

objective definition

denotation

52

its subjective or emotional meaning

connotation

53

negative face

be autonomous

54

signed; the author of the message is clearly identified, as it is in your textbooks, news related editorials, feature articles and communicating face to face, phone and chat

onymous

55

the author is not identified

anonymous

56

refers to the act of sending messages with the intention of giving another person information you believe to be false

lying

57

to achieve some good; lying

prosocial deception

58

lying to make yourself look good

self-enhancement deception

59

lying to protect yourself

selfish deception

60

lying to harm someone

antisocial deception

61

is a communication pattern in which you ignore a person's presence as well as that person's communications

disconfirmation

62

you disagree with the person; you indicate your unwillingness to accept something the other person says or does

rejecting

63

you not only acknowledge the presence of the other person, but also indicate your acceptance of the person, of this person's definition of self, and of your relationship define or viewed by this other person

confirmation

64

any language that, through a conscious or unconscious attempt by the user, places a particular racial or ethnic group in an inferior position

racist

65

expresses racial attitudes

racial language

66

involves the negative attitudes and beliefs that people hold about specific races; assumption that certain races are intellectually inferior to others or that certain races are in capable of certain achievements are clear examples of this

individual racism

67

seen in patterns; de facto school segregation, companies reluctance to hire members of minority groups and banks unwillingness to extend mortgages and business loans to members of some races or tendency to charge higher interest rates

institutionalized racism

68

consists of attitudes, behaviors, and language that disparage gay men and lesbians and includes the belief that all sexual behavior that is not heterosexual is unnatural and deserving of criticism and condemnation; beliefs that gay men or lesbians are more likely to commit crimes than are heterosexuals and to molest children than heterosexuals; gay men and lesbians cannot maintain stable relationships or effectively raise children

individual heterosexism

69

the ban on gay marriage in most states and the fact that at this time only a handful of states allow gay marriage; catholic church ban on gay priests, laws preventing adoption of children by gay men or lesbians

institutional heterosexism

70

includes derogatory terms used for lesbians and gay men

heterosexist language

71

the prejudice against other age groups

ageism

72

the general disrespect many show toward older people and in negative stereotypes about older people

individual ageism

73

seen in mandatory retirement laws and age restrictions in certain occupations

institutional ageism

74

little old lady; old hag, old timer, over the hill

ageist language

75

consists of prejudicial attitudes and beliefs about men and women based on rigid beliefs about gender roles; women caretakers, men are insensitive and only think about sex

individual sexism

76

results from customs and practices that discriminate against people because of their gender; paying women less than men for same job and discrimination against women in upper levels of management; granting child custody to women rather than men

institutional sexism

77

language that puts down someone because of his or her gender

sexist language

78

refers to a tendency to view people, objects, and events in terms of how they're talked about of labeled rather than in terms of how they actually exist

intensional orientation

79

a tendency to look first at the actual people, objects, and events and then at the labels; a tendency to be guided by what you see happening rather than by the way something or someone is talked about or labeled; view people or things as they are rather than how they are talked about their labels

extensional orientation

80

when you assume you can say all or have said all that can be said, you are into the pattern of illogical thinking; judge whole based on experience with part

allness

81

when inferences are treated as facts

fact-inference confusion

82

misevaluation; a form of stereotyping ; occurs when you focus on classes of individuals, objects or events and fail to see that each is unique and needs to be looked at individually

indiscrimination

83

is the tendency to look at the world and to describe it in terms of extremes-good or bad, positive or negative, healthy or sick, brillant or stupid, rich or poor

polarization

84

when you retain an evaluation(attitudes and beliefs) of a person, despite the inevitable changes in the person

static evaluation

85

language to talk to and about people of different groups

cultural identifiers

86

recognize that no member in the group is alike

discrimination