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1

Karl Landsteiner

First defined the ABO blood system.

2

What is ACD?

Acid-Citrate-Dextrose
A preservative (Loutit & Mollison)

3

What is CPD

Citrate-phosphate-dextrose
A preservative (Gibson)

4

When was the first blood bank established? Where? By who?

1941 (WWI)
Presbyterian Hospital
American Red Cross

5

What are the usable components of one unit of blood?

Packed red blood cells (RBCs)
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
Platelets (Plt)
Clotting Factors (AHF)

6

Charles Drew

Pioneer in blood transfusions; lead to widespread system of blood banks

7

Why were early transfusions problematic?

Whole blood transfusions lead to circulatory overload. Component therapy more successful

8

How many pints of blood do adults have?

10-12 pints

9

How long does it take to replace fluid lost during blood donation?

w/in 24 hours

10

How long does it take to replace RBCs after donation?

1-2 months

11

How often can someone donate blood?

Every 8 weeks (RBCs/whole blood)

12

What is the donor procedure?

Educational Info, Donor Health History, Physical Exam

13

What does the donor physical exam consist of?

Temp, blood pressure, HCT/Hgb

14

How long does HepB&C and HIV live at room temperature?

HepB&C lives for 7 days
HIV dies once it leaves the body

15

Which fluids are considered non-infectious as long as they are not visibly contaminated with blood?

Nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, urine, saliva, stool, and tears.

16

What are the tests run on donor blood?

HIV Type 1,2,O
Hep C
Hep B core
Hep B surface
HTLV (human t-cell lymphotrophic virus)c
Syphilis
West Nile, Chagas, CMV, sickle cell
ABO/Rh
Antibody Screening

17

Hep B Core Antibody

Signifies a past HepB infection (will always be positive if you have ever had it)

18

Hep B Surface Antigen

Signifies a current infection

19

Alleles

Alternate forms of a gene that may be present at a single chromosome locus.

20

Amorph

Genes without detectable traits

21

Autosome

Chromosomes other than sex chromosomes (humans have 22). Autosomes are alike.

22

Chromosome

Threads of DNA found in the nucleus of a cell. Genes are found along these strands (humans have 23)

23

Crossing-over

After replication during meiosis, genes which are not closely linked will cross over and exchange genetic material between paired chromosomes, resulting in recombination to give 2 new and different chromosomes.

24

DNA Overview

Sugar deoxyribose; 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 autosomes, 1 pair sex chromosomes)

25

Dosage

Stronger expression of a gene due to homozygous inheritance

26

Genes

Units which code for various expressions of inherited genetic information. Basic unit of inheritance within a chromosome.

27

Genotype

The actual genes inherited; often determined by family studies.

28

Heterozygous

(Kk) the inherited genes differ at the chromosomal locus

29

Homozygous

(KK or kk) both of the inherited genes are identical at a given chromosomal locus.

30

Linkage

The tendency of genes that are in close proximity on a chromosome to be associated in inheritance.

31

Parentage testing: Direct exclusion

The offspring expresses a trait that the mother or alleged father do not have

32

Parentage testing: Indirect excllusion

The offspring does not possess a gene that should have been inherited.

33

Phenotype

Observable expression of inherited genes.

34

Polymorphic

Describes a population that contains 2 or more phenotypes.

35

Private genes

Exceedingly rare genes found only in a few people.

36

Public genes

Genes found in most of the public.

37

RNA

Ribose surgar, thymine replaced by uracil

38

Trait

A characteristic that is inherited

39

X-linked

Blood group genes located on the X chromosome: Xga, Xk, XS

40

Gregor Mendel

Monk who described hereditary laws in pea plants.

41

Law of Independent Segregation

Factors (genes) cause different traits, and these appear in pairs in the individual (diploid 2x), but that gametes (haploid 1x) have traits segregated to inherit to each offspring (TT x tt = 3:1 ration in second generation)

42

Law of Independent Assortment

Two trait behave independently in inheritance (TTYY x ttyy = 9:3:3:1 in second generation)

43

Incomplete Dominance

Both alleles are expressed, but one is stronger than the other (ex. Sickle cell carrier)

44

Codominance

Equal expression of two different inherited alleles. Most blood group genes produce codominant traits.

45

Mitosis

Somatic cell division which results in two identical diploid cells

46

Meiosis

Gamete cell division which results in 4 haploid cells.

47

What are the stages of mitosis?

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Interphase

48

DNA purine bases

Adenine and guanine

49

DNA pyrimidine bases

Thymine and Cytosine

50

4 reasons why traits can be a genetic marker?

Simple unequivocal pattern of inheritance
Classification of phenotypes by reliable techniques
High frequency of common alleles at particular locus
Absence of effect of environment factors, age, interaction w/ other genes, or variable on expression of trait.

51

Hardy-Weinberg Law

Algebraic Law that states the relative proportion of genotypes with respect to a given locus remains constant in a population as long as mating is random. (

52

Codon

Arrangement of 3 base pairs

53

Activation

The initiation of the complement cascade.

54

Alternate Pathway

Mechanism of complement activation that does not involve activation of C1, C4, C2 pathway by antigen-antibody complexes. Need Factor B, Factor D, Properdin, and C3 to begin.

55

Anamnestic Response

high quality antibodies (IgG class) secreted by B memory cells. Secondary exposure to an antigen which results in IgG antibody production (1-2 days, larger response than IgM)

56

Anaphylatoxin

Substance capable of releasing histamine from mast cells (C3a, C5a)

57

Antibody

The product of the humoral immune response. Antibody is produced in response to specific immunogenic (antigenic) stimulus by plasma cells, a terminal stage of B-cell proliferation.

58

Antigen

Foreign, non-self substance that leads to a immune response.
A substance that is capable or reacting with the product of an immune response (antibody and antigen combine to from Ag-Ab reaction)
A molecule with a known binding specificity

59

Antigen Presentation

Process in the body's immune system by which macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cell types capture antigens and then enable their recognition by T-cells.

60

B Lymphocyte

Bone marrow derived; influenced by the fetal liver, bone marrow, or gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) or bone marrow derived cells. They mature during an immune response to become plasma cells.

61

Cell-mediated Immunity

An immune response which does not involve antibodies or complement, but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.

62

Classic Pathway

The mechanism of complement activation initiated by antigen-antibody aggregates and proceeding by way of C1, C4, and C2.

63

Clonal Selection Theory

Widely accepted model for how the immune system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens invading the body.

64

Clone

groups of B cells or plasma cells that produce the same specificity

65

Complement

Humoral; Series of proteins in the circulation that, when activated, act as enzymes and participate in a number of biologic activities, including lysis of cells, opsonization, chemotaxis, and so forth.

66

Cytokines

A category of signaling molecules that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication.

67

Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte

CD8; Capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells; they kill cells that are infected with viruses (or other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. Down-regulate immune response.

68

Disulfide Bond

(S-S) hold together the two pairs of chains covalently. Allows molecule to flex and hold its shape in 3 dimensions.

69

Epitope

the antigenic determinant small portion composed of as few as 5 or 6 amino acids or sugars. Responsible for specificity, meaning the region contains the molecular configurations that allow recognition by the corresponding antibody (site of bonding)

70

FcReceptor

A receptor on a cell surface with specific binding affinity for the Fc portion of an antibody molecule.

71

Haptens

A substance that by itself is too small to stimulate an immune response but when coupled with a protein of larger molecular weight can stimulate a response. Haptens by themselves can react with the product of an immune response.

72

Heavy Chains

The larger of two chains that comprise the normal antibody molecule.

73

Humoral Immunity

An immune response that leads to the production of an antibody (soluble substance in fluid)

74

Innate Immunity

Nonspecific detruction and treats all invaders the same.

75

Innate Immunity First Line of Defense

Skin, mucous membranes, sweat, tears, sneezing, coughing, pH

76

Innate Immunity Second Line of Defense

Phagocytes; release of interferon and interleukins

77

Hypervariable

Amino acid sequences (3 in each light chain, and 4 in each heavy) with complementary shapes. Dictate goodness of fit and wheather an antibody-antigen will complex.

78

Idiotype

Portion of the immunoglobulin molecule that is the antigen combining site; found in the variable region.

79

Immunization

The process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as an immunogen)

80

Immunogen

A substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response.

81

Immunoglobulin

Proteins capable of acting as antibodies. IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE

82

Killer Cell

Fc receptor; Large granular lymphocytes that appear to have the ability to destroy tumor cells. May be drawn to antibody coated tumor cell.

83

Leukocyte

White blood cells

84

Macrophage

Motile, mature forms of peripheral blood monocytes.
Nonspecific and attracted to opsonized particles.
Have an Fc receptor for antibodies with a bound antigen
Complement receptor
Presents particles to T and B cell for destruction

85

Memory Cell

cells generated after an initial encounter with an antigen (at primary infection); may circulate in blood for years. Can be activated very quickly.

86

Nonself

"not me" or "not like me"

87

Perforin

Released by cytotoxic T cells. Kills viruse infected cells by releasing large amounts of calcium, which prevents virus replication (and death)

88

Plasma Cell

Formally a B cell; large cell full of protein producing endoplasmic reticulum which can gush antibody for 3-4 days. Antibody produced has the same antibody specificity as original B cell's surface antigen receptor

89

Primary Immune Response

The first encounter with an antigen resulting in a relatively slow response (5-7 days to generate antibody and appreciable number of activated cells). IgM produced in low concentration (takes 3-4 weeks)

90

Properdin Pathway

Stabilizing protein in the alternate pathway of complement activation.

91

Secondary Immune Response

Second exposure to an antigen which results in the production of large amounts of IgG in a short time (1-2 days). Influenced by affinity and avidity.

92

Self

"same as me" or "like me"

93

T Lymphocyte

Thymus derived lymphocyte which manifest cellular immunity, but also play a helper role in humoral immunity. Provides protection against invading viruses, fungi, and facultative microorganisms.

94

Variable Region

The region of an antibody molecule in which specificity is determined by the amino acid sequence.

95

Constant Region

The area of the immunoglobulin molecule that is composed of a relatively constant amino acid sequence.

96

Zeta Potential

Net negative charge of the red blood cell, measured at the surface of shear.

97

What makes up the immune system?

Leukocytes, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic channels, and the thymus

98

When do B cells become plasma cells?

If a B cell has recognized it's specific antigen using its specific cell surface antigen receptor (an antibody molecule, which may be called surface immunoglobulin) and has received a cytokine signal from the T helper cell, the B cell divides and differentiates to become a plasma cell.

99

Allogenic

foreign: from a donor other than the transfusion recipient.

100

Autologous

Self

101

Adaptive Immunity

Process where the body's resistance to a specific antigen happens after recognition and is mediated by B and T lymphocytes. Characterized by immunological memory.

102

Autoimmunity

Failure to recognize or tolerate "self"

103

What type of cell synthesizes immunoglobulins?

B cells or plasma cells (with help from T cells)

104

Antigenic determinant (epitope)

The only location of bonding between an antibody and antigen, with a "lock and key structure"

105

What are the functions of immunoglobulins?

Antigen binding
Facilitate phagocytosis (Fc receptors and macrophages)c
Neutralize toxins
Activate/fix complement
Kill microbes

106

What are the percentages of immunoglobulins?

IgG 70-80%
IgA 13%
IgM 10%
IgG 1%
IgE trace

107

Pepsin

Enzyme which cleaves antibodies into 1 joint with 2 Fabs and S-S and 1 tiny Fc (ex Y + pepsin = v (fab) + I (Fc))

108

Papain

Enzyme which cleaves antibodies into 2 Fabs and 1 Fc (ex. Y + papain = \ (fab) + / (fab) + I Fc)

109

Fc

Constant region of antibody responsible for complement fixation, monocyte binding (IgG placental transfer)

110

Fab

Variable region of antibody responsible for antigen binding

111

Antigen- antibody reactions that proceed to the final stages of complement may result in what?

Hemolysis