Flashcards in Test 1 General Information Deck (111)
First defined the ABO blood system.
What is ACD?
A preservative (Loutit & Mollison)
What is CPD
A preservative (Gibson)
When was the first blood bank established? Where? By who?
American Red Cross
What are the usable components of one unit of blood?
Packed red blood cells (RBCs)
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
Clotting Factors (AHF)
Pioneer in blood transfusions; lead to widespread system of blood banks
Why were early transfusions problematic?
Whole blood transfusions lead to circulatory overload. Component therapy more successful
How many pints of blood do adults have?
How long does it take to replace fluid lost during blood donation?
w/in 24 hours
How long does it take to replace RBCs after donation?
How often can someone donate blood?
Every 8 weeks (RBCs/whole blood)
What is the donor procedure?
Educational Info, Donor Health History, Physical Exam
What does the donor physical exam consist of?
Temp, blood pressure, HCT/Hgb
How long does HepB&C and HIV live at room temperature?
HepB&C lives for 7 days
HIV dies once it leaves the body
Which fluids are considered non-infectious as long as they are not visibly contaminated with blood?
Nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, urine, saliva, stool, and tears.
What are the tests run on donor blood?
HIV Type 1,2,O
Hep B core
Hep B surface
HTLV (human t-cell lymphotrophic virus)c
West Nile, Chagas, CMV, sickle cell
Hep B Core Antibody
Signifies a past HepB infection (will always be positive if you have ever had it)
Hep B Surface Antigen
Signifies a current infection
Alternate forms of a gene that may be present at a single chromosome locus.
Genes without detectable traits
Chromosomes other than sex chromosomes (humans have 22). Autosomes are alike.
Threads of DNA found in the nucleus of a cell. Genes are found along these strands (humans have 23)
After replication during meiosis, genes which are not closely linked will cross over and exchange genetic material between paired chromosomes, resulting in recombination to give 2 new and different chromosomes.
Sugar deoxyribose; 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 autosomes, 1 pair sex chromosomes)
Stronger expression of a gene due to homozygous inheritance
Units which code for various expressions of inherited genetic information. Basic unit of inheritance within a chromosome.
The actual genes inherited; often determined by family studies.
(Kk) the inherited genes differ at the chromosomal locus
(KK or kk) both of the inherited genes are identical at a given chromosomal locus.
The tendency of genes that are in close proximity on a chromosome to be associated in inheritance.
Parentage testing: Direct exclusion
The offspring expresses a trait that the mother or alleged father do not have
Parentage testing: Indirect excllusion
The offspring does not possess a gene that should have been inherited.
Observable expression of inherited genes.
Describes a population that contains 2 or more phenotypes.
Exceedingly rare genes found only in a few people.
Genes found in most of the public.
Ribose surgar, thymine replaced by uracil
A characteristic that is inherited
Blood group genes located on the X chromosome: Xga, Xk, XS
Monk who described hereditary laws in pea plants.
Law of Independent Segregation
Factors (genes) cause different traits, and these appear in pairs in the individual (diploid 2x), but that gametes (haploid 1x) have traits segregated to inherit to each offspring (TT x tt = 3:1 ration in second generation)
Law of Independent Assortment
Two trait behave independently in inheritance (TTYY x ttyy = 9:3:3:1 in second generation)
Both alleles are expressed, but one is stronger than the other (ex. Sickle cell carrier)
Equal expression of two different inherited alleles. Most blood group genes produce codominant traits.
Somatic cell division which results in two identical diploid cells
Gamete cell division which results in 4 haploid cells.
What are the stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Interphase
DNA purine bases
Adenine and guanine
DNA pyrimidine bases
Thymine and Cytosine
4 reasons why traits can be a genetic marker?
Simple unequivocal pattern of inheritance
Classification of phenotypes by reliable techniques
High frequency of common alleles at particular locus
Absence of effect of environment factors, age, interaction w/ other genes, or variable on expression of trait.
Algebraic Law that states the relative proportion of genotypes with respect to a given locus remains constant in a population as long as mating is random. (
Arrangement of 3 base pairs
The initiation of the complement cascade.
Mechanism of complement activation that does not involve activation of C1, C4, C2 pathway by antigen-antibody complexes. Need Factor B, Factor D, Properdin, and C3 to begin.
high quality antibodies (IgG class) secreted by B memory cells. Secondary exposure to an antigen which results in IgG antibody production (1-2 days, larger response than IgM)
Substance capable of releasing histamine from mast cells (C3a, C5a)
The product of the humoral immune response. Antibody is produced in response to specific immunogenic (antigenic) stimulus by plasma cells, a terminal stage of B-cell proliferation.
Foreign, non-self substance that leads to a immune response.
A substance that is capable or reacting with the product of an immune response (antibody and antigen combine to from Ag-Ab reaction)
A molecule with a known binding specificity
Process in the body's immune system by which macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cell types capture antigens and then enable their recognition by T-cells.
Bone marrow derived; influenced by the fetal liver, bone marrow, or gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) or bone marrow derived cells. They mature during an immune response to become plasma cells.
An immune response which does not involve antibodies or complement, but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
The mechanism of complement activation initiated by antigen-antibody aggregates and proceeding by way of C1, C4, and C2.
Clonal Selection Theory
Widely accepted model for how the immune system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens invading the body.
groups of B cells or plasma cells that produce the same specificity
Humoral; Series of proteins in the circulation that, when activated, act as enzymes and participate in a number of biologic activities, including lysis of cells, opsonization, chemotaxis, and so forth.
A category of signaling molecules that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication.
Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte
CD8; Capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells; they kill cells that are infected with viruses (or other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. Down-regulate immune response.
(S-S) hold together the two pairs of chains covalently. Allows molecule to flex and hold its shape in 3 dimensions.
the antigenic determinant small portion composed of as few as 5 or 6 amino acids or sugars. Responsible for specificity, meaning the region contains the molecular configurations that allow recognition by the corresponding antibody (site of bonding)
A receptor on a cell surface with specific binding affinity for the Fc portion of an antibody molecule.
A substance that by itself is too small to stimulate an immune response but when coupled with a protein of larger molecular weight can stimulate a response. Haptens by themselves can react with the product of an immune response.
The larger of two chains that comprise the normal antibody molecule.
An immune response that leads to the production of an antibody (soluble substance in fluid)
Nonspecific detruction and treats all invaders the same.
Innate Immunity First Line of Defense
Skin, mucous membranes, sweat, tears, sneezing, coughing, pH
Innate Immunity Second Line of Defense
Phagocytes; release of interferon and interleukins
Amino acid sequences (3 in each light chain, and 4 in each heavy) with complementary shapes. Dictate goodness of fit and wheather an antibody-antigen will complex.
Portion of the immunoglobulin molecule that is the antigen combining site; found in the variable region.
The process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as an immunogen)
A substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response.
Proteins capable of acting as antibodies. IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE
Fc receptor; Large granular lymphocytes that appear to have the ability to destroy tumor cells. May be drawn to antibody coated tumor cell.
White blood cells
Motile, mature forms of peripheral blood monocytes.
Nonspecific and attracted to opsonized particles.
Have an Fc receptor for antibodies with a bound antigen
Presents particles to T and B cell for destruction
cells generated after an initial encounter with an antigen (at primary infection); may circulate in blood for years. Can be activated very quickly.
"not me" or "not like me"
Released by cytotoxic T cells. Kills viruse infected cells by releasing large amounts of calcium, which prevents virus replication (and death)
Formally a B cell; large cell full of protein producing endoplasmic reticulum which can gush antibody for 3-4 days. Antibody produced has the same antibody specificity as original B cell's surface antigen receptor
Primary Immune Response
The first encounter with an antigen resulting in a relatively slow response (5-7 days to generate antibody and appreciable number of activated cells). IgM produced in low concentration (takes 3-4 weeks)
Stabilizing protein in the alternate pathway of complement activation.
Secondary Immune Response
Second exposure to an antigen which results in the production of large amounts of IgG in a short time (1-2 days). Influenced by affinity and avidity.
"same as me" or "like me"
Thymus derived lymphocyte which manifest cellular immunity, but also play a helper role in humoral immunity. Provides protection against invading viruses, fungi, and facultative microorganisms.
The region of an antibody molecule in which specificity is determined by the amino acid sequence.
The area of the immunoglobulin molecule that is composed of a relatively constant amino acid sequence.
Net negative charge of the red blood cell, measured at the surface of shear.
What makes up the immune system?
Leukocytes, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic channels, and the thymus
When do B cells become plasma cells?
If a B cell has recognized it's specific antigen using its specific cell surface antigen receptor (an antibody molecule, which may be called surface immunoglobulin) and has received a cytokine signal from the T helper cell, the B cell divides and differentiates to become a plasma cell.
foreign: from a donor other than the transfusion recipient.
Process where the body's resistance to a specific antigen happens after recognition and is mediated by B and T lymphocytes. Characterized by immunological memory.
Failure to recognize or tolerate "self"
What type of cell synthesizes immunoglobulins?
B cells or plasma cells (with help from T cells)
Antigenic determinant (epitope)
The only location of bonding between an antibody and antigen, with a "lock and key structure"
What are the functions of immunoglobulins?
Facilitate phagocytosis (Fc receptors and macrophages)c
What are the percentages of immunoglobulins?
Enzyme which cleaves antibodies into 1 joint with 2 Fabs and S-S and 1 tiny Fc (ex Y + pepsin = v (fab) + I (Fc))
Enzyme which cleaves antibodies into 2 Fabs and 1 Fc (ex. Y + papain = \ (fab) + / (fab) + I Fc)
Constant region of antibody responsible for complement fixation, monocyte binding (IgG placental transfer)
Variable region of antibody responsible for antigen binding