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Flashcards in Test #1: Reconstruction Deck (21)
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1

Radical Republicans

- felt they could govern the South better than the South itself could because they left the Union and lost their rights

2

Lincoln's Plan

- aka Proclamation of Amnesty
- forgiven and excused of crimes (pardoned) and allowed back into the Union
- Ten Percent Plan: 10% of those who voted (roughly 10,000) had to sign an oath of allegiance (which said they support not only the Constitution but also the Union
- South had to support the Emancipation Proclamation
- Exclusion Clause: former officers, judges, and any office holders of the Confederation

3

President Johnson's Plan

- similar to Lincoln's plan
- rich (20k a year or more) could not be pardoned
a) generally planters
- required the ratification of the 13th amendment
- abolish slavery in state

4

Radical Republican Plan

- believed South had to be reconstructed, not restored
- want to "change the fabric of Southern society"
- believed North could change the South better than the South could
- wanted to take the plantations, chop them up, and give them away to free slaves
- slaves given the right to vote (with the ulterior motive of getting more votes for Republicans)

5

Civil Rights Act

- passed in response to the Black Codes
- all people (citizens) (excluding Native Americans) had the benefits of US citizenship and all of the laws
- vetoed by Johnson because **he did not believe the federal government had the authority to pass such a law
a) makes him look bad
- Congress overrides veto

6

Black Codes

- set of laws in South to restrict the rights of African Americans
- South wished to keep the idea of slavery alive

7

14th Amendment

- all people have state and federal citizenship
- forbids any state from taking away those rights
- cannot deprive any person of their due process
a) basically saying they cannot be deprived of their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
- cannot deny EQUAL PROTECTION of any kind

8

Freedom Bureau

- 1865
- to help the former slaves: provide provisions
- 1st form of social welfare
- negotiate contracts for the former slave
- provide medical care and education

9

Scalawag South

- someone (usually a Democrat) who supports the RR to make money

10

Sharecropping

- poor farmers (white or black)
- grow crops on another person's farm and the owner gets 1/2 of crops (bushels)
- farmers could possibly get stuck on farms for being in debt
(not to be confused with tenant farming, which was farming to pay rent and live on farm)

11

Military Reconstruction Act of 1867

- the South had to be divided into 5 military districts
- a general would oversee the government (made sure all qualified voters participated)
- had to give all rights to all citizens (equal)
- every state had to ratify the 14th amendment

12

Wade Davis Bill

- Radical Republican's version of construction
- majority of white male citizens had to take an oath declaring their allegiance to the US
- difficult for all to agree on it (needed a 50+1 majority in each state)

13

Carpetbaggers

- move from the North to the South to make money (usually North republicans)

14

Tenures of Office Act

- if the President wants to fire Senate and appoint for the Senate, the Senate must approve the firing

15

Edwin Stanton

- secretary of war
- Johnson attempted firing him, Senate denied request, Johnson fired him away, eventually leading to his Impeachment

16

15th Amendment

- cannot stop someone from voting because of their race of previous servitude

17

Ku Klux Klan

- violates the 15th Amendment but does not become a violation until someone protests their actions
- 1st terrorist group in America
- started circa 1866 in Tennessee
- goal to scare AA and any white who supported them
- **wanted to defend the social and political superiority of whites
- murdered, beat, and tortured people into staying quiet and following Southern law (like asking AA and poor whites ridiculously hard questions to be able to vote)

18

Impeachment of Johnson

- Congress ("grand jury") speak of charges
a) they say yes, Johnson has committed a crime
- Articles of Impeachment: charges put against you
- Senate acted as jury, hearing case
a) 2/3 have to say he committed a crime
- for an impeachment to happen, the President has to commit a crime and/or a misdemeanor

19

Purchase of Alaska

- purchased by William Seward
- bought for 7.2 mil from Russia
- coined "Seward's folly"

20

Election of 1868

- issue: Reconstruction
- Republican candidate: Grant, winning general
a) no experience- says little about the issues
b) wins by vote of 3 million; 214 electoral votes
- Democrat candidate: Seymour, NY governor
a) calls Grant stupid and a drunk
b) loses with 2.7 million votes; 80 electoral
- Grant won 70-80% of the African American votes (roughly 450-500,000)

21

Bloody Shirt

- an Ohio tax collector beat up by KKK
- white shirt turned red from blood
- shirt used to campaign against the Democrats (saying look what the Democrats have done)