The pituitary is considered what?
Which hormone acts on bone to release calcium in the blood?
Adrenal medulla secretes what?
epinephrine and norephienphrine
which causative factor may be responsible for primary endocrine disorder??
hormone overproduction and severe infection
a tumor of the pituitary is usually what?
benign pituitary adenoma (affects women more than men)
local symptoms of pituitary adenoma?
headache from pressure of the tumor and visual disturbance.
systemic symptoms of pituitary adenoma?
personality changes, weakness, fatigue, and vague abdominal pain
nursing management for hypophysectomy (removal of pituitary gland)
Semi-fowler, closely monitor vital signs and neurologic status. note any vision change, mental status, LOC, strength. note any symptoms for diabetes indipidus. and nasal packing (dripping)
Hyperfuction of pituitary gland (pathophysiolgy)
stress and pregnancy are other causes of increased hormone release. pituitary adenoma may increase of hormones.
signs and symptoms of hyperfuction of the pituitary gland?
Gigantism in children, acromegaly in adults
Treatment for hyperfunction of the pituitary gland?
removal of the pituitary adenoma
Hypofunction of the pituitary gland (pathophysiology)
most common cause is a tumor, autoimmune disorder, infections or destruction of pituitary gland,
sheehan syndrome due to postpartum hemorrhage
decrease in growth hormone and gonadotropins
signs and symptoms of hypofunction of the pituitary gland
with tumor: headaches, visual changes, anosmia, or seizures.
other symptoms depend on the hormone involved
Treatment and nursing management for hypofunction of pituitary gland
hormone replacement, surgery and radiation, and teaching
diabetes insipidus pathophysiology
Central DI: associated with brain tumors, head injury, neurosurgery, or central nervous system (CNS) infections
Nephrogenic DI: caused by drug therapy (lithium) or kidney disease
Dispogenic DI: caused by excessive water intake (sometimes associated with schizophrenia)
S/S of DI
Diuresis, thirst, weakness and fatigue, often from nocturia, deficient fluid volume, signs of shock and CNS manifestations
DI nursing management and treatment
Replacement of fluid and electrolytes
early detection, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance, and patient education
baseline vital signs and weight are the accurately document and monitor throughout therapy
strict (hourly) intake and output monitoring are essential
SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone)
excessive amounts of ADH are produces, resulting in fluid retention
S/S of SIADH
confusion, seizure, LOC, weight gain, edema
hyponatremia, muscle cramps, and weakness,
diminished urine output
SIADH treatment and nursing management
correct underlying cause
restrict fluid to 500 to 1000 mL
administer sodium chloride, diuretics and demeclocyline
greatly enlarged thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency or lack of thyroid hormone.
S/S of goiter?
enlargement of the front of the neck
primary: graves disease or toxic goiter
S/S of hyperthyroidism
weight loss and nervousness
immune disorder where the thyroid overproduces hormones. most common in women under 40
Symptoms of graves disease
anxiety, hand tremors, heat sensitivity
Hyperthyroidism treatment and nursing mangement
radioactive iodine and antithyroid drugs
mild sedatives and beta adrenergic blocking agent
can be caused by inflammation of the thyroid or by treatment of hyperthyroidism