Test #2 Flashcards Preview

JLS: Critical Issue in the Justice System > Test #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (54):

Name The Eras of Policing

  1. Political Era (1840-1920)
  2. Professional Era (1920-1970)
  3. Community Policing (1970- Present)


Where did authority come from during the Political Era?

  • Authority came from local politicias
  • Police recruited from same ethnic groups as in dominant political groups; they lived in the neighborhoods they patrolled
  • EMPHASIS on social welfare and order maintenance


How was the police organized during the political era?

  • Mayor and city council appointed chief of police
  • Chief oversaw the entire department
  • Main police strategy was foot patrol on assigned beats
  • Police officers worked the samw beats so they got to know the resident
  • Measure of Succes: political and citizen satisfaction


What Are The Strengths Of The Political Era?

  • Police were integrated into the community
  • Police provided useful services


What Are The Weaknesses Of The Political Era? 

  • Corruption
  • Lack of Standards
  • Lack of Centralized Authority led to disorganizations


What Was The Solution To The Political Era Crisis?

  • Professionalize the police
  • Professional model of policing model


What Are The 6 Elements Of The Professional Policing Model?

  1. Stay out of Politics
  2. Officers should be well trained, well disciplined and tightly oganized
  3. Laws should be enforced equally
  4. Use new technology
  5. Base promotions on merit
  6. Main task of polie- fighting crime- No more service like soup kitchens


What were the changes between Political and Professional Era?

  • Crime fighting is main goal
  • Changes in tactis
  • No more foot patrol of assigned beats


What Impact Did New Technology Have On The Professional Era?

  1. Motorized Patrol
    • Randomly drives through beats/city
    • Rotate beats to prevent corruptions
  2. Radio Communication- allowed deploying police on the fly
  3. Rapid Response
    • Police became reactive


What Lead To The Decline Of The Professional Model?

  • Political Climate
  • Research Evidence


What was going on in the 60s and 70s?

  • Civil rights movement, Vietnam
  • Led to growing distrust of government authority- including police



What Research Evidence Saw Problems With The Professional Era?

  • Slew of research came out in the 1970s suggesting that "nothing workerd" in preventing crime
  • Preventive Patrol- doesn't work! Kelling et al. (1974)
  • Adding More Police- doesn't work! Levine (1975)
  • Rapid Response- doesn't work! Spelman & Brown (1984)
  • Changes to investigations- doesn't work! Greenwood & Peteroilia (1975)
  • Nothing Works!


How Does The Community Model Work?

  1. Increase contacts with citizens
    • Get out of cas
    • Talk to residents about problems in their areas
    • Reintro of Foot Patrol
  2. Have goals besides crime fighting


What Are The Reasons For The Spread of COP?

  1. It was a way to change goals
    • From preventing crime (which studies shows they weren't doing) to other goals
  2. Experts started to recognize cucial role played by citizens
  3. Federal Funds became available


What is Community Oriented Policing?

  • COP is a very difficult concept to define
    • Label attached to wide variety of programs
    • Not a specific polize strategy or tactic
  • Cop is more of policing paradigm- a new idea about how to do policing and how to organize police agencies


What Are The Elements Of COP?

  1. Community Involvement
  2. Problem Solving
  3. Organizational Change


What Does Community Involvemet Mean?


COPs foundation is based on this idea. Why?

  • Help improve relationships
  • Give police better information about problems
    • Enable police to be more responsive to community needs


What Does Problem Solving Mean?


  • Police are expected to solve problems!
  • Must engage community, identify problem and enlist community help


What Does Organizational Change Mean?


The 4Ds -Eck & Maguire

  • Decentralize
  • Delayerize
  • Deformalize
  • Despecialization


What 3 Major Changes Need To Be Made For COP?

  1. Organizational Structure
  2. Organizational Culture
  3. Management


What Major Changes Should Be Made To The Organizational Structure?


  • Major Change Is Decentralize!
  • Fewer Levels of Management (Delayerize)
  • Smaller Precincts responsible for smaller areas of city
  • Less Specialization (Despecialize)
  • More Discretion for Line Officers (Deformalize)
    • To Identify Problems & Develop Solutions


What Major Changes Should Be Made To The Organizational Culture?

The biggest challenge for implementing COP is that Policing has long been focused on enforcing law and making arrest. 


What Major Changes Should Be Made To Management?


  • Must do more than just keep officers in the line
    • Assist line officers in developing partnerships, dealing with political issues
  • But Still Have to do routine supervisory tasks


Does COP Work?

  • Hard to evaluate because it done differently from one police department to the next
  • Research Evidence: There is no clear evidence COP has an impact on crime but we do find a reduction o ffear and improved opinions of police
  • It is seldom fully implemented 
  • Few made organizational chages


What Is Discretion?

Discretion is the ability to use judgement


What Did Black (1980) find?

  • Police systematically under-enforced the law, making arrest only about 1/2 the situations where an arrest is legally called for


What Is The Broken Windows Theory?

Theory about how crime problems deveop and how police should focus their efforts to stop them from arising


How Did The Broken Windows Theory Originate?

  1. Zambardo Experiment
  2. Research On Fear Of Crime
  • crime is a rare event while disorder is more constant and visibe
  • disorder may have a bigger impact


What Was The Zimbardo Experiment?

  • Parked 2 cars with hood up and no license plate
  • ONe Parked int the Bronx the other in Palo Alto, CA
  • The Car in the Bronx was stripped within minutes
  • The Car parked in Palo Alto was not touched for days, so they had to smash the front shield to provoke activity


What Was The Research On Fear Of Crime?

  • 1970s consistently found fear of crime not related to crime rates, victimization, risks
    • Most victimized group in society?
    • Most Fearful Group?
  • People living in highest crime areas not most afraid of crime


What Did Kelling's Policing Research Find?

  • Foot patrol in Newark, NJ
  • No impact on crime but fear was down


Simple Idea

Untended disorder leads to community decline and crime


What Is Social Disorder?

nuisance behaviors example public intoxication


What is Physical Disorder?

dilapidated physical conditions 


Broken Windows Thesis (Wilson & Kelling, 1982)

  • Disorder goes untreated ->
  • Citizens become fearful & with draw from the community ->
  • Informal social control decreases ->
  • Disorder and crime increases as criminals step up their activity in the area


According To The BWT How Can The Police Best Prevent Crime?

  • Don't Ignore Disorder
  • Negotiate consensus with community: what is and isn't acceptable
  • Rapid repair of physical disorder
  • Key: Deal with Disorder Quickly: To maintain social control on neighborhood
  • Orderly neighborhood sends different signals


Issues & Controversies Surrounding BWP?

  1. Is It Effective
    • Police Think So
    • Kelling & Sousa (2001) suggested it prevented 600,000 violent crimes
    • Used at same time as POP, COP, etc
    • Crime Rates dropped in al major US cities
    • Improved economy
    • Decline of crack epidemics
  2. Morall Political Issues Surrounding BWP
    • Who Defines Disorder
  3. Potential Bacikfire Effects


What Percent Of The American Population Express Some Confidence In The Police?



What Are The Differences In Confidences And Groups?

  • Very Little Confidence: 6% W, 27% AA
  • Unfairly Stopped: 4% W, 37% AA
  • Too Few Police In My DC Neighborhood: 26% W, 55% AA


Describe An Example Of Minorities Being Arrested Disporportionately?

AAs=12% of population BUT ACCOUNT FOR

  • 40% of arrests for violent offenses
  • 34% of arrests for drug offenses


What Explaing The Disparity Of Arrest And Population?


What Did Black (1980) find?

  • Found that SS were more likely to be disrespectful of police than whites


  • Resig Et Al (2004) found that the relationshio between racial status and disrespectful toward police deminished once neighborhood context was controled
    • Found that intoxication and emotion are most robust predictor of citizen respect


What Is Racial Profiling?

Racial Profiling is the practice of making police stops, searches, arrests solely on the basis of someone's race or ethnicity ad not their behabior


Is Racial Profiling Illegal?

Racial Profiling is illegal accordint to the 14th Amendment and Equal Protection Clause


Is It Ever Legitimate For The Police To Use Race When Deciding Who To Stop?

  • Cannot stop or arrest a person solely on the basis of race or ethnicity
  • Cannot use race or ethnicity when it is one element in a general profile of criminal aspects
  • But it can be legitimate for police to use race or ethnicity when t is one element and the description is specific criminal suspect and that info is based on credible information from a reliable source


Although studies show racial disparities in stops, searches, and arrests, why is this not proof of racial profiling?

  • Although the percent of AAs stoped, searched and arrested may be high, it could be due to the proportion like 65% are AAs


How Can We See The Relationship Between Those Stopped etc, and Their Race?

    • DWV
    • Census Of Racial Make Up
    • Limitation- can't tell you about actual makeup of driver on particular roadways
    • Research observeers race of drivers from sidewalk side of the road etc. to estimate racial make up of drivers in the area
    • Observational studies where trained researchers drive on roadways & a passeger records both the race of all drivers & those speeding
    • Thus, can also examine if speeding violations vary by race which could explain disparities in traffic stops


What Was The Lamberth (1997) Study Find?

  • Study of stops on I-95 Maryland
  • Found that 13% of drivers were black (& 17.5% of traffic law violators were black)
  • But 73% of those stopped & searched were black


Is There Evidence Of Racial Profiling?

  • But Overall,, the research literature on profiling is more mixed
  • Most Studies find some evidence that minorities (particularly AAs) are more likely to be stopped and searched tha whites but....
    • Not all finding are as clear as the Lamberth studies


Context Of Racial Profiling?

  1. The War On Drugs
    • Belief that minorites are more likely to be involved in drug trafficking leads to more police attention aimed at minorities
  2. Stopping Minorites Who Look Out Of Place
    • i.e. AAs male in predominately white neighborhoods
  3. General Crackdowns On Crime
    • Tend to focus on poor, high crime inner-city neighborhoods that are predominately minority


What Are Police Crackdowns?

Short-term intensive police enforement efforts where police mek many arrests: Aggresive stop, question and frisk


What Is The Biggest Consequenc Of Racial Profiling?

  • Erosion of police legitimacy
  • Can Exacerbate existing racial disparties in CJ system
  • Accumulation of minor record due to DWB can resut in enhanced sentencing future court proceedings


What Is Done To Reduce Racial Profiling?

  1. Written Policies
    • Some state laws officially ban the practice
    • Others outline how race/ethnicity can be used by police
  2. Improve Officer Training
    • Specific training on proper use of race in traffic stops
  3. Collect Data On Traffic Stops
    • Mandated by law in 20+ states
    • Allows Agencies, states to monitor whether profiling is occuring and male needed changes
    • But Most efforts focus on the numerator (# & Race of ppl stopped)
  4. Litigation
    • Suing Police Department for race discrimination


What Was Robert Wilking Case?

  • I-95 in MD (1992)
  • Resulted in big changed to MD state Police Policy
  • Served to bring the national attention to the problem of DWB