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Flashcards in Test #3 Deck (29):

Mass Incarceration 1 in ?

1 in 31*

Now more like 1 in 34*


Estimated Population in Corrections

Adul population


229,030,637 (Adult Pop)



Hot Spots

Hot Spots for incarceration are hardly random: contributors of poverty, unemployment, family disruptio, etc. 


Deterrence (2009) Index crime clearance rates crime cleared due to arrests

Murder 66%

Robbery 28%

Burgalary 13%

MTV: 12%

abouth 8% of ending up incarcerated



Crime drop due to increase in population:

25% of crime drop due to increase in prison population


What is the other 75% drop in crime due to?

  • drug markert changes
  • economic changes
  • other factors (policing, innovation, etc.)


Describe the progressive era

  • 1890s-1930s
  • emphasis on restoration of offender through work/training



Descrbe the Medical Model

  • 1930-1960s
  • assume criminal behavior is baused by biological or psychological factors that require individual treatment


Describe the Community Model

  • 1960s-1970s
  • reintegrate & vocation
  • avoid incarceration whenever posible
  • Key: Rehabilatiation is critical prior to the 1970s


Describe the Crime Control Model

  • 1970s- Today
  • Criminal behavior can be controlled through greater use of incarceration (& strict supervision)
  • Goals:
    • Control Crime
    • Incapacitation
    • Deterrence
    • Risk Management


Why the change and why the increase in Prison Pop.?

  • Martison (1974)
  • Rising Crime Rates
  • Intro of mandatory minimum sentences
  • Truth In Sentencing Laws
  • Abolition of Parole
  • War on drugs 100:1, 18:1
  • 12% of PP incresase due to increase in offending
  • 88% of PP increase is attributed to change in CJS
  • Drug enforcement accounts for nearly 1/3 of PP increase


Current State of the mentally ill n the U.S.

  • currently far more mentally ill live in the nation's jails & prisons than in state hospitals
  • the incarceration rate of the mentaly ill 4X that of the general population
  • conservative estimates put the # at 350,000
    • often repeat offenders
    • large mental hospitals are closing


Current # of Elderly Prisoners

  • in 2010 US prisons held more than 119,000 offenders over 55yo


Prisoners w/ HIV/AIDS

in 2008 there were more than 21,000 HIV+ inmates (1.9% of PP) & 6,000 offenders (.5% ofPP)w?AIDS


Long-term Prisoners:


  • 40% state inmates have no HSD or GED
  • 17%= 8th grade or lower


  • 80% of inmates used drugs regularly before incarceration

Mental Illnes:

  • about 1 in 5 (18%) of correctional population has a major mental illnes
  • 75% have cocurring addiction


Juvenile Delinquency Cases in 2009

1.5 million



  • the juv. justice system changed in the 1980s to focus more on crime & being "tough on crime"
  • what lead to this change:
    • rising crime- including youth crime
    • crack cocaine epidemic/ war on drugs
    • concern over gangs
    • fear of the "super predator"


Types of Juvenile Waiver Laws

  • Discretionary
  • Presumptive/direct/- certain cases start in favor of waiver, defense must convince judge to keep the case in juvenile court
  • Mandatory/statutory exclusion- cases that meet certain criteria (age, offense, prior, record, etc) 


The Expand of Waivers Resulted in:


  • 36X more likely to commit suicide


Definition of Terrorism Today

A policy intended to strike with terror those against whom it is adopted; the employment of methods of intimidation; the fact of terrorizing or condition of being terrorized.


Terrorism: French Revolution (1789-94)

  • Regime de la terreur- new system of government established order through intimidation of the “enemies of the people”
    • “People's Court”- given wide powers of arrest and punishment
    • wide use of death penalty,
    • Maximilian Robespierre- “Terror is nothing but justice, prompt, severe and inflexible; it is therfore an emanation of virtue”
      • abuse of state powe
      • getting rid of the monarchy
      • Robespierre's reign of terror
  • Terrorism is associated with abuse of state power


Changing Definition of Terrorism

  • Big social and economic changes continue to influence definition
    • Regime de la terreur produced a lasting anti-monarchy sentiment
    • Industrial Revolution and 19th century capitalism
      • exploitation of workers & poor led to new ideologies
      • Burgeoisie
      • Proletariat
  • This is where the term terrorism gained the familiar anti-state connotation we know today


Carlo Piscane

  • Carlo Piscane- Italian republican extremist in mid 19th century
  • “Propaganda by Deed” →Violence can be use to
  • “The propaganda of the idea is a chimera. Ideas result from deeds (violence), not the latter from the former, and the people will not be free when they are educated, but educated when they are free.”
  • What is he saysing?
  • Violence can be used to 1. draw attention 2. rally the masses behind the cause
  • trying to unite people through propaganda is dumb/mythical
  • chimera-Greek monster
  • set people free through deeds then educate them

1.draw attention to a cause

2.rally the masses behind the cause


  •  Narodnaya Volva (People's Will)-  fought Tsarist rule in 1878 through selective targeting of royals and government officials- anarchists
  • anarchists-assassinate a slew of state leaders (including an attempt on Roosevelt)
  • Militant Armenian nationalists
  • 1930s WWII:
    • practices of mass repression by totalitarian states like Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia
    • terrorist begins to be associated with people trying to overthrow oppressive regimes
  • Shifts to mean rebellion against the state
  • 1960s and 1970s- the term regains its revolutionary meaning
    • Many newly independent third worl coutries produce “freedom fighters” against colonial oppresion
    • Palestine Liberation OrganizationPLO
    • ETA



 use of drug traffickin to advance the objectives of certain terrorist orgs. 


Crime vs. Terrorism


  • both are social construction (something that wouldn't exist with out society, like democracy or the idea of freedom)
    • “one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter”
    • Menachen Begin- Irgun Zvai Leumi
    • Yasir Arafat-PLO
  • disproportionately committed by young males
  • undermines social trust
  • “Because no one can be sure of what behavior to expect from others” (LaFree & Dugan, 2004)


Crime vs. Terrorism


  • While terrorist activities typically constitute multiple crimes for many nations, specific crime of terrorism does not exist
  • the response to common crime rarely moves beyond local level
  • response to common crime is usually on the local level, while terrorism is usually federal
  • crime is generally for immediate personal gain, while terrorism is to inflict long-term fear to forward on agenda
  • terrorists often think they are altruists serving a greater cause



  • the importance of symbols
  • designed for far reaching psychological effects
  • designed to achieve maximum attention
  • Terrorist more likely to see themselves as altruits or serving a greater cause
  • terrorist more likely to innovate
  • From this, we can construct a working definition of terrorism
  • the threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence to attain a political, economic, religious or social goal through fear, coercion or intimidation