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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (72)
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1

Jump Bands

-Scaled-down big bands for dancing
-National popularity; films and TV

2

"Choo Choo Ch'Boogie,"

Louis Jordan and his Tympani Five
*form? 12-bar blues verse, 8-bar chorus; alternating solos
Regional Style: Kansas City

3

Why was there a rise of indies in 1940s?

-1930s slump in record sales (indies wiped out in 30s)
-disputes over royalties
1914 ASCAP founded (copyright enforcement)
1941 ASCAP strike against radio: BMI gives space for
country, R&B
1942-44 AFM strike against recording cos: bye bye big band
-wartime migration of southerners to cities
-youth marketing
-regional radio programming
-Magnetic tape makes studio recording more affordable

4

Regional dance music--"Urban blues"

e.g. Chicago Blues:
*Chess records
-Phil and Leonard Chess (Polish Jews)

5

"Hoochie Coochie Man"

Muddy Waters
Drums, harmonica (harp), electric guitar,
bass, piano, call and response, stop time
Form: 12 bar blues + 4 bar @ stop time, stropic

6

R&B recording Stars

Creating styles vs. presenting local styles

7

Atlantic Records

Ahmet Ertegun (Turkish) and Herb Abramson
Promoting singers nationally, using studio musicians, less directly related to regional entertainment scenes

8

"Mama, He Treats Your Daughter Mean"

(1953)
Ruth Brown (Atlantic record)
*Anything here remind you of her gospel music roots?
-vocal timbre and effects
-timbre
-cyclical call/response section

9

"I've Got A Woman"

(1954)
Ray Charles (Atlantic)
-gospel chord progression and singing style
-call and response section // stop time; also at end
-honking tenor sax
-controversy
Mambo influence in “mainstream”, e.g….

10

Honky Tonk

Songs of loss and displacement
Modern “roots” of authentic country
Answer songs

11

“The Wild Side of Life”

(1951) Hank Thompson
-fiddle and steel guitar
-story-telling

12

“Your Cheatin’ Heart”

1952
*What are the markers of country style?
-steel guitar, fiddle
-polka beat (boom chick)
-accent and breaks in voice, yodelling
*form? AABA (Tin Pan Alley influence)

13

Rock And Roll

Racial Boundary Crossing
Records and regional radio programming (new in 1940s) bring black
music to white youth
1951 Alan Freed’s “Moon Dog House Rock and Roll Party”
In Cleveland, later NYC

14

“Long Tall Sally”

Little Richard (Early rock and roll star)
Risquee, wild quality of R&R
Boogie woogie piano style
instrumentation? Jump band
*form? 12-bar blues

15

"Rock Around the Clock"

Bill Haley 1954
“Back beat” (accent on 2 & 4)
sax and electric guitar
12-bar blues, boogie woogie style, walking bass
(jump band style)
**Country musician appealed to r&b audience

16

“Maybelline”

(1955)
Chuck Berry
Electric guitar virtuoso
*What is “country” about this?
-song about an unfaithful woman?
-polka beat
-accent/speech style

17

“Cover” phenomenon

Dot records used Boone to cover black R&B musicians like Little
Richard
-“mechanical revenues” are what Little Richard lost
-lack of legal recognition for recording (performance) as
copyrightable intellectual property (book p.246)

18

Elvis Presley

Sun Studios (Memphis) producer Sam Philips
“Rockabilly”

19

“Mystery Train”

1955 (originally Junior Parker)
*What African American elements? What White?
-aab text
-sort of 12-bar blues
-Signed by RCA

20

“Don’t Be Cruel”

1956
Elvis Presley and Chet Atkins Musical director, nashville
-Back beat
Buddy Holly (The Crickets) :
Rock quartet instrumentation: Drums, bass, rhythm guitar, lead guitar
pioneered studio recording techniques such as overdubbing

21

"La Bamba"

1958
Richie Valens
*What’s “Latin” about this?
-Spanish language
-conga tumbao on drum set
-clave/wood block
-son jarocho

22

Beatles Presentation

3 periods of beatles within 1960s to 1970s
Beatles at the cavern clup (liverpool) (pete best on drums) 1962
Ed sullivan show
-spent time in india meditate
effect of lsd on the band, esp john lennon on opening
-KKK
-Beatles > jesus

23

“Sh’Boom”

Doo Wop
Chords (1954)
-nice warmth in vocal harmony; voices like instrumental
accompaniment
-more fluid, less breaks and changes
-blend of lead voice w/backup
-sax solo
-vocal timbre—more active, engaging, less sappy
-more relaxed rhythmic feel, reggae-ish

24

“Sh’Boom” by Crew Cuts

(1954)
-lead voice stands
-more intricate instrument
-break with tympany
-very bright vocal blend

25

Doo Wop

very mixed race
Relation to African American gospel quartets

26

“The Sun Didn’t Shine”

Golden Gate Quartet

27

New Business models for pop: 1. Marketing

-Youth marketing and creation of teen stars
-Challenges to racialization of genre categories (rockabilly)
-cross marketing with TV and movies (precedent in earlier era of
movie musicals)

28

New Business models for pop:2. Singer/songwriter model

-Ideas of “authenticity” and innovation, opposed to TPA

29

New Business models for pop
3. Importance of producers

Jerry Lieber and Mike Stoller, esp. w/Atlantic fr. ca. 1950
Sam Phillips, Sun Studios in Memphis
Cosimo Matassa New Orleans
Chess Brothers, Chicago
George Martin of Beatles (fr. 1962?)
Barry Gordy of Motown (fr. 1960)
Brian Wilson of Beach Boys
Phil Spector’s “girl groups” e.g. Ronettes

30

Beach Boys

Brian Wilson (writer/producer/performer)
“Surf music” as genre:
Instrumental focus, conducive to virtuosity
Attention to instrumental sounds (e.g. ‘surf guitar’)
Inventive song writing and studio work of Beach Boys in particular