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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (45):
1

What are the two measurable properties common to all matter

Volume

Mass

2

This text divides matter into what two major categories

Pure substances

Mixtures

3

Name the six properties that can be observed without making the material something different

(Physical properties)

Color

Shape

Physical state

Odor

Taste

Texture

4

Density

The amount of matter packed into a given volume

5

Malleability

Describes how easily a material can be hammered into shapes

6

Ductility

Describes how easily materials can be drawn into thin wires

7

Conductivity

Describes the ability of a material to transfer heat or electricity between its particles

8

Name three very ductile metals

Copper, aluminum, gold

9

Name and describe the two types of mixtures

Heterogeneous -has two or more distinct regions or phases-Italian dressing

Homogeneous-has only one phase-saltwater

10

A uniform mixture of solid particles suspended in a liquid or gas. The particles will eventually settle out due to gravity

Suspension

HETEROGENEOUS

11

An element that naturally occurs as an individual atom

Monatomic element

12

Elements whose particles are normally composed of groups of three or more identical atoms

Polyatomic elements

13

When writing chemical symbols the first letter is always_in the second letter is always_

Capitalized, lowercase

14

List the four common physical properties of matter

Density, malleability, ductility, conductivity

15

Give an example of a very malleable metal

Gold

16

A Joule (J) is used to measure what two things

Energy and work

17

A type of mechanical energy which involves energy in motion

Kinetic energy

18

A type of mechanical energy which involves the energy of position

Potential energy

19

Is the Connecticut energy of atom sized particles as they move in random directions

Thermal energy

20

_Or_energy involves particles that move in a periodic way like waves

Sound or acoustic

21

Occurs when charged particles, electrons, move between atoms causing atoms to form an break bonds with other atoms

Chemical energy

22

Occurs when the nucleus of an atom breaks apart or when particles are added to or removed from a nucleus

Nuclear energy

23

What does the law of energy conservation say

Energy can be neither created nor destroyed but can only change from one form to another

24

These reactions give off energy

Exothermic

25

These reactions absorb energy

Endothermic

26

What is the amount of heat transfer required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C

calorie (cal)

27

Is found on food containers

Calorie

28

Tk = formula

Tk =Tc+273.15°

29

Tf = formula

Tf = (1.8•Tc)+32

30

Solids tend to have

A fixed volume

A rigid, fixed shape

Are relatively incompressible

Have a low kinetic energy

31

In 3CaBr{2}

What is three

What is the little two

How many calcium

How many bromine

three = coefficient

Two = subscript

Three calcium

Six bromine

32

Mg(NO{3}) {2}

How many magnesium

How many nitrogen

How many oxygen

Magnesium-one

Nitrogen-two

Oxygen-six

33

What is NaCl

Compound

34

What is He

Monatomic

35

What is O{2}

Diatomic

36

What is S{8}

Polyatomic

37

All noble gases are

Monatomic

38

How many diatomic elements

Seven

39

Pure substances that consist of two or more elements chemically combined are called

Compounds

40

Describe energy

The ability to do work

41

Six most common types of energy

Mechanical

Thermal

Acoustic

Electromagnetic

Chemical

Nuclear

42

Absolute zero

The theoretical temperature at which all molecules and atomic movement ceases

43

Entropy

The measure of the dispersal of energy

44

Can be measured or observed without changing the actual composition of the material

Physical properties

45

Second law of thermodynamics

All natural processes tend toward the highest entropy and the minimum usable energy