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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (40):
1

The outer zone of the adrenal cortex is called...

Zona Glomerulosa

2

The middle zone of the adrenal cortex is called...

Zona Fasciculata

3

The inner zone of the adrenal cortex is called...

Zona Reticularis

4

The outer zone of the adrenal cortex produces...

Mineralocorticoids (namely ALDOSTERONE)

5

The middle zone of the adrenal cortex produces...

Glucocorticoids (namely CORTISOL)

6

The inner zone of the adrenal cortex produces...

Adrenal Androgens (namely DHEA and ANDROSTENEDIONE)

7

What inhibits Cortosol?

Increased blood cortisol levels
opioids
Somatostatin

8

The main stimulator in cortisol secretion

Stress, hypoglycemia, surgery, trauma.

9

Excess cortisol due to a problem in the adrenal cortex (typically a tumor)

Cushing Syndrome

10

Excess cortisol due to a problem in the anterior pituitary (typically excess ACTH from a tumor)

Cushing Disease

11

Diminished cortisol secretion (and sometimes also aldosterone) due to a problem in the adrenal cortex (typically autoimmune or certain fungal infections)

Addison Disease (Primary Adrenal Insufficiency)

12

Hyperpigmentation is a result of elevated levels of ______ which are then converted into ________.

ACTH

α-MSH

13

a class of anti- hypertensive drugs that block the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II.

ACE inhibitors

14

Caused by aldosterone- secreting tumor

Conn Syndrome (Primary Hyperaldosteronism)

15

Production is shunted entirely toward the adrenal androgen pathway, which causes virilization in females.

Congenital 21β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

16

Production is shunted entirely toward the mineralocorticoid pathway.

Congenital 17α-Hydroxylase Deficiency

17

Adrenal insufficiency is treated with replacement of glucocorticoid. This is achieved with the oral cortisol __________.

hydrocortisone; Cortef

18

Low-potency, short-acting GCs

hydrocortisone, cortisone;

19

Medium-potency, intermediate-acting GCs

prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, triamcinolone

20

High-potency, long-acting GCs

betamethasone, budesonide, dexamethasone

21

lthough hydrocortisone has some mineralocorticoid activity, it is usually not enough for some patients. These patients require the synthetic oral mineralocorticoid_______________.

fludrocortisone (Florinef)

22

most predominant cells in the parathyroid glands

The principal or chief cells

23

Some recent evidence suggests that they may be degenerated principal cells.

oxyphil cells

24

the active form of vitamin D

1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol

25

Rickets occurs in children, ___________ in adults

Osteomalacia

26

protein hormone (32-amino acids) that is synthesized and secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland

Calcitonin

27

A typical attack of hypocalcemic tetany involves muscular spasms in the face

Chvostek’s sign

28

A typical attack of hypocalcemia Tetany involves contortions of the arms and hands.

Trousseau’s sign

29

Associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and primary adrenal insufficiency

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome

30

Adequate calcium for Postmenopausal women

approx. 1200 mg

31

The most widely available calcium supplements are

calcium carbonate and calcium citrate

32

Calcium supplements interfere with the absorption of______ and _______ _____ and, therefore, these medications should be taken at different times.

iron
thyroid hormone

33

When is Calcium carbonate absorption better?

With meals

34

When is calcium citrate absorption better?

While fasted

35

How does estrogen affect bone?

Osteoblasts also produce a “decoy receptor” called osteoprotegerin (OPG) that binds to RANKL and prevents the RANKL/RANK interaction (thereby causing osteoclastogenesis inhibitory activity).

Estradiol increases production of OPG to diminish bone resorption.

36

Tissue selective estrogen receptor
modulator (SERM) that has been approved by the FDA for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

Raloxifene (Evista)

37

a humanized monoclonal antibody against RANKL  thereby inhibiting osteoclast formation, decreasing bone resorption, increasing BMD and reducing the risk of fracture

Denosumab (Prolia)

38

Caused by aldosterone- secreting tumor

Conn syndrome

39

Treatment of Conn syndrome consists of administration of an aldosterone antagonist such as

spironolactone

40

Examples of ACE inhibitors include

lisinopril and enalapril