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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (58):
1

_______hormones are examples of_________ derivatives that are chemically similar to steroid hormones

Thyroid
tyrosine

2

__________________ are examples of____________ derivatives that are chemically similar to protein hormones

Epinenephrine & norepinephrine (catecholamines)
tyrosine

3

Episodic release of hormone of about an hour.

Circhoral

4

Episodic release of hormones longer than an hour but less than 24 hrs.

Ultradian

5

Episodic release approximately every 24 hrs

Circadian

6

Episodic activity that is expressed at defined periods of the day

Diurnal (D for defined)

7

Episodic release of hormones approximately every month (30 days)

Circatrigintan

8

This disorder is a form of postpartum pituitary necrosis or infarction.

Sheehan’s syndrome

9

Hypopituitarism, particularly a form resulting in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

Hemochromotosis

10

The paraventricular nucleus produces...

OXYTOCIN

11

The supraoptic nucleus produces...

ADH

12

the most important physiologic stimulus for increasing ADH secretion

increase in osmolarity

13

The second most potent stimulus for ADH secretion

Hypovolemia, or volume contraction (e.g., due to hemorrhage)

14

Other Factors inhibiting ADH secretion

Ethanol
a-Adrenergic agonists
Atrial natriuretic peptide

15

The target tissue of ADH and its effect

Effect: Water resorption of by the kidneys
Targets: Principal cells of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.

16

Which receptors does ADH bind to?

V2 receptors in the kidneys
V1 Receptors in smooth muscle

17

What is the secondary action of ADH?

Constriction of arteriolar vascular smooth muscle causing vasoconstriction.

18

Decreased ADH secretion results in which disease?

Neurogenic (Central) Diabetes Insipidus

19

ADH is released from

The posterior pituitary

20

In adults, the major clinical manifestations of diabetes insipidus include abnormal specific gravity of urine. What is normal and what is not?

The urine is dilute with specific gravity below 1.005, and an osmolality less than 200mmol/kg/24hr

21

A disorder that results compulsive water drinking, not associated with excess ADH secretion.

Primary Polydipsia

22

Medication taken for ONLY for neurogenic (central) diabetes insipidus

Desmopressin (DDAVP)

23

Disease suspected in any patient with hyponatremia, plasma hyposmolality, and elevated urinary sodium excretion

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH)

24

Most common etiology is ectopic production of ADH by small cell (oat cell) carcinoma of the lung

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH)

25

Causes contraction of the myoepithelial cells of the mammary alveoli & ducts and the ejection of milk.

Oxytocin

26

Stimulation of the nipple through suckling produces a neurohumoral reflex that causes secretion of.

Oxytocin

27

Affects the myometrium, as it increases both the frequency and the duration of action potentials during uterine contractions.

Oxytocin

28

Thyrotropes in the anterior pituitary produce... And its release is stimulated by...

TSH

Released by Thyrotropin-relasing hormone

29

Corticotropes in the anterior pituitary produce... And its release is stimulated by...

ACTH

Released by Corticotropin- releasing hormone

30

Somatotropes in the anterior pituitary produce... And its release is stimulated/inhibited by...

GH

Released by Growth hormone releasing hormone
Inhibited by Growth hormone- inhibiting hormone

31

Lactotropes in the anterior pituitary produce... And its release is stimulated/inhibited by...

Prolactin

Released by Prolactin-releasing factor
Inhibited by Prolactin-inhibiting factor

32

Gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary produce... And its release is stimulated by...

FSH, LH

Released by Gonadotropin releasing hormone

33

GHIH is also known as________.

somatostatin

34

Other actions of growth hormone are mediated indirectly through the production of____________ (or _____________) in the liver.

SOMATOMEDINS
Also called
INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS [IGFs]

35

What are the effects of IGFs?

Stimulates the hypothalamus secretion of Somatostatin/GHIH, also inhibits the anterior pituitary from producing GH.

36

Growth Hormone Preparations

x-tropin e.g. Genotropin

Humatrope and Saizen

37

Blocks growth hormone receptors throughout the body and reduces blood levels of IGF-1

Pegvisomant (Somavert)

38

Name the Inhibitory factors of Prolactin Secretion

Dopamine
Bromocriptine (dopamine agonist)
Somatostatin
Prolactin (negative feedback)

39

Name the stimulatory factors of Prolactin Secretion

Pregnancy
Breast-feeding
sleep
stress
TRH
Dopamine antagonist

40

Drugs for Hyperprolactinemia, maybe because of a prolactinoma

Cabergoline (Cabaser, others), Bromocriptine (Parlodel, others)

41

stimulates Leydig cells in the testes to synthesize and secrete testosterone

LH

42

stimulates Sertoli cells in the testes to secrete seminal fluid

FSH

43

During the first half of the menstrual cycle (follicular phase) and the midpoint, FSH and LH stimulate the ovaries to....

synthesize and secrete estradiol (the major type of estrogen)

44

During the second half of the menstrual cycle (luteal phase), FSH and LH stimulate the ovaries to

synthesize and secrete progesterone

45

These cells secrete calcitonin

C cells (parafollicular cells)

46

Thyroid hormones are derivatives of...

the amino acid tyrosine

47

Follicular cells synthesize __________
and dump into the colloid

TGB
(with its numerous tyrosine)

48

MIT + DIT = ?

T3

49

DIT + DIT = ?

T4

50

The Oxidation of I- to I2, the Organification of I2, and Coupling and colloid storage require the enzyme

THYROID PEROXIDASE

51

catalyzes the Deiodination of residual MIT
& DIT

thyroid deiodinase

52

TSH Actions

Stimulates TGB synthesis

Stimulates Na+/I- pump activity

Activates thyroid peroxidase

hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells

53

What are the three major thyroid hormone transport proteins?

thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) [Don’t confuse with TGB]

thyroxine-binding pre-albumin (TBPA)

albumin

54

Synthetic T4 thyroid hormone preparations include:

Levothyroxine (T4) [Levothroid,
Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid]

Liotrix (A mixture of T4 & T3 4:1)
[Thyrolar]

55

Synthetic T3 thyroid hormone preparations include:

Liothyronine (T3) [Cytomel]

Liotrix (A mixture of T4 & T3 4:1)
[Thyrolar]

56

is a term generally used to denote severe hypothyroidism.

Myxedema

57

anti-thyroid drugs

thioamides

58

inhibit thyroid peroxidase- catalyzed steps in the synthetic process

Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU)