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Flashcards in test 2 Deck (50):
1

In the real world, many factors determine the number of organisms in any one population. Yet a superfly with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?

j-shaped growth curve

2

The demographic transition refers to a country's change from...

high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

3

Tundra biomes occur...

at high latitudes and altitudes, where the growing season is short

4

A population growing at 2.5% per year should double in about ___ years.

28

5

Widespread starvation is an example of ____ population control

density-dependent

6

Which of the following sequences is an example of exponential growth rate?

4,8,16,32

7

Carrying capacity is the population...

that an environment can support on a long-term basis

8

In a population whose mortality and natality are balanced, there are...

about the same number of old and young

9

Crude birth rates are measured in terms of children born...

per 1000 people each year

10

An "r-adapted" strategy of population growth includes a tendency for...

little parental care and protection, production of many small offspring that mature early, and organisms to have short lives and grow rapidly

11

Life expectancy is the...

number of years an individual of a certain age will probably live

12

Location of specific biomes can be predicted based on...

precipitation and temperature

13

The zero population growth rate in the more highly developed countries is ___ children.

2.1

14

Endocrine disruptors...

disrupt normal hormone functions

15

Teratogens cause abnormal growth specifically in...

embryos

16

If solubility is an important characteristic in toxic material movement in the environment and body, which of the following statements is true?

oil-soluble compounds accumulate in the body

17

Hazardous substances ___ while toxins are ____.

are dangerous substances; poisonous substances

18

Biomagnification is a concentration of toxins...

as predators consume and store toxins stored in the bodies of their prey

19

The difference between "total growth rate: and "natural increase" is that total growth rates...

include immigration and emigration as well as births and deaths

20

Highly persistent toxic chemicals...

retain their toxicity as they cycle through the food chain and environment

21

Historically, up until the middle ages, populations were mostly limited by...

disease, famine and war

22

Deciduous forests...

have trees that shed their leaves seasonally

23

In evaluating the interaction of two chemicals that have an adverse impact on a specific organism, the most serious detrimental chemical interaction would be described as...

synergistic

24

A dependency ratio is a comparison between the numbers of...

working and nonworking people

25

Genetic diversity is lost in a small population when...

only a few individuals survive a catastrophe

26

A demographic transition is expected to accompany...

economic development and stabilization

27

The histogram on the left represents a population whose birth rates...

have recently decreased

28

The population represented by the age class histogram on the right wil...

grow substantially in the future

29

Boreal forests are generally...

slow-growing because of the cold temperatures

30

Which of the following is an abiotic population control mechanism?

water shortages

31

Island biogeography explains the phenomenon of ___ terrestrial species on islands small and far from the mainland when compared to larger islands that are closer to the mainland and have ___ terrestrial species.

fewer; more

32

The graph above indicates that more children die...

when their mothers are illiterate

33

Wetlands are biomes that...

are wet at least some of the year

34

Predation is considered to be a(n) ____ factor.

extrinsic and biotic

35

Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by exposure to a(n)...

teratogen

36

Allergens are substances that...

activate the immune system

37

Tropical seasonal forests are specially adapted to tolerate...

annual cycles of severe drought and heavy rain

38

The saying "the dose makes the poison" means that...

nearly anything can be toxic at some level

39

What environmental factor does not change between "b" and "e" in the diagram?

light penetration, temperature, nutrient availability, and oxygen content

40

What aquatic ecosystem phenomenon is illustrated in the diagram?

vertical stratification

41

The biome type that has a short growing season and is summer feeding and breeding grounds for caribou and muck-ox is the...

arctic tundra

42

The term "fecundity" refers to an organism's ___ while fertility is ____.

physical ability to reproduce; actual number of offspring produced

43

Malthus argued that ___ is the ultimate cause of social and environmental problems and Marx argued that population growth ____ social and environmental problems.

excess population growth; results from

44

Which of the following types of population curves would best represent a group of elephants that enter a new, open habitat and become a stable part of that ecosystem?

s-shaped curve

45

Mangrove trees are found along ___ shorelines

tropical saltwater

46

The World Health Organization regards health as primarily a matter of ___ well-being.

physical, mental, and social

47

Logistic growth rates are those in which a population...

grows rapidly when conditions are good, then slows as it approaches carrying capacity

48

Historically, the greatest threats to human health came from...

pathogenic organisms

49

Density-independent population control factors cause mortality...

regardless of population size

50

Health organizations now use the ____, a tool to _____.

DALY; judge the total impact of the disease rather than only measuring how many people die