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Flashcards in final Deck (150):
1

GiffordPinchot believed that resources should be used for the greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time and thus he practiced...

utilitarian conservation

2

Which of the following is not one of the pillars of sustainability?

Political

3

Indicator species, such as lichens, generally have a ____ tolerance range for a _____.

narrow; critical factor

4

Producers rely on ___ to create energy and consumers rely on ___ to release chemical energy.

photosynthesis; cellular respiration

5

Energy enters a system as sunlight and a producer is able to produce 100 kilograms of tissue. If eaten, the producer would produce about ___ kilograms of primary consumer tissue that would provide about ___ kilograms of tissue for a secondary consumer.

10;1

6

Water flowing over a dam is known as ___ energy.

kinetic

7

Which of the following would be an example of intraspecific competition?

two male bluebirds fighting over a specific nesting site

8

The conservation of matter principle is that matter...

can neither be created nor destroyed but can change form

9

The incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds by bacteria living with plants in nodules or free-living is known as...

nitrogen fixation

10

If the pH of the water in a pond goes from 5.0 to 7.0, the hydrogen ion concentration of the pond has...

decreased 100 fold

11

Which of the following statements is true?

In a mutualistic relationship both partners benefit from the relationship.

12

Evolution occurs as a result of...

better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic

13

The single factor in shortest supply relative to demand is the limiting factor and is known as...

Liebig's Law

14

Interspecific competition is competition among ___ for resources.

members of different species

15

Which organisms usually feed on the producers in an ecosystem?

primary consumers

16

The preferred method for studying systems is...

in-situ studies

17

When glaciers break apart it is called?

calving

18

___ is considered the catalyst of modern awareness of the threat of toxic pollution and the notion of environmentalism related to human health.

Rachel Carson

19

When organic nitrogen such as protein is added to soil, denitrification of nitrogen in the protein will occur when conditions are...

aerobic followed by anaerobic

20

A biological community's productivity is a measure of...

the amount of biomass produced in the community

21

Environment can be defined as...

complex of social or cultural conditions that affect an individual or community, all the biotic and abiotic external conditions that affect an organisms or group of organisms, circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms.

22

A generalization formed after making many observations is known as...

inductive reasoning

23

A keystone species is a species whose presence...

influences the population size of many other species in its community

24

Which of the following biogeochemical cycles does not have an atmospheric phase?

phosphorous cycle

25

The acquisition of traits that allow a species to survive in its environment is referred to as...

adaptation

26

Following hurricane Harvey, soil scientists when to Houston, TX to study increased organic contaminants in the soil as the floodwaters receded. This is known as which type of experimentation?

natural experiments

27

Basic principles of science include..

we can learn through observation, simpler explanation are preferable, and nothing can be absolutely proven by science

28

The second law of thermodynamics states that as energy moves through different forms and systems if gradually...

dissipates and becomes less available

29

When a new species evolved due to geographic isolation it is referred to as...

allopatric speciation

30

Chasing Ice was shown to the class in an effort to raise awareness about?

increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, global climate change, the melting of the polar ice caps, and the intersection of art and science in communication

31

An example of primary productivity would be...

a prairie adding 1000kg of biomass per acre during 7 days of growth.

32

All the individuals of a species that inhibit a particular place at the same time is known as a...

population

33

Sustainable development, ideally, improves living conditions...

for generations in the future

34

Which of the following best defines an ecological niche?

the part of the environment into which species fit the role each species play in its environment, the food a species eats, and where a species reproduces

35

An ecosystem consists of...

a biological community and its physical environment

36

Cryoconite can be defined as...

wind blown materials that accumulate on the glaciers

37

One major difference affecting the scope of environmental issues of the past and present is the...

current ability to alter the natural world through technology

38

The conversion of organic sulfur to inorganic sulfur is defined as...

mineralization

39

The largest carbon sinks are found in...

soil and oceans

40

Networks of interactions among interdependent factors are known as...

systems

41

Carbon sequestration involves the capture and long-term storage of carbon dioxide in...

soil organic matter, oceans, terrestrial forests, and geologic formations

42

Mechanisms of evolution include which of the following?

natural selection, migration, and genetic drift

43

Resource partitioning leads species to...

feed at different times, utilize slightly different prey, develop different physiological adaptations, and live in slightly different regions.

44

Barnacles are a type of crustacean that attach to whales. Barnacles cannot move on their own, so they use the whale to move around and find locations with food. The whale does not benefit in any way from the barnacles. This is an example of which of the following symbiotic relationship?

commensalism

45

The competitive exclusion principle states that...

no two species can occupy the same niche

46

Natural selection will ultimately make a species...

better adapted to its environment

47

A species can withstand a narrow range of temperature Above 100degrees F there are no species present. In the range from 97degrees F to 100degrees F and 87degrees F to 90degrees F there area few species present. Below 87degrees F there are no species present. What would you label the range of temperature from 87degrees to 90degrees F for this particular species?

zone of physiological stress

48

Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of...

species at each trophic level and trophic levels represented

49

Which of the following is not a step in the global nitrogen cycle?

photosynthesis

50

A viceroy butterfly that closely resembles the bad tasting monarch is an example of ___ and the example of beetles that look like stinging wasps is an example of ___.

bayesian mimicry; bayesian mimicry.

51

In the real world, population explosion is usually followed by...

a population crash

52

The demographic transition refers to a country's change from...

high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

53

Tree growth in the taiga is limited by...

extreme cold and short summers

54

An organism's biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring...

that could be born without any constraints on growth and reproduction

55

You are studying an organisms that is a pioneer species is an opportunists and does not care for its offspring. This offspring probably has a ____ population growth strategy.

r-adapted

56

he average age that a newborn can expect to attain in a given society is referred to as...

life expectancy

57

A biome is described by...

broadly similar environmental conditions

58

Mangrove trees are found along ____ shorelines.

tropical saltwater

59

The thermocline is the layer in a lake at which...

the warm upper zone meets the cold lower zone.

60

Logistic growth would be represented by a ____ curve

s shaped

61

Carrying capacity is the population or biomass...

of a species that an environment can support on a long-term basis.

62

Individuals represented by the middle of the dose/response curve (responding to doses of 20 ppm) are ___ for that population.

about average in sensitivity

63

In the graph of precipitation and temperature, desert biomes would fall in the area marked by..

high temperature and low precipitation

64

An LD50 is a does of a toxic chemical that...

kills half of the population

65

Morbidity is another word for...

illness

66

The doubling time for a population with an annual percentage growth rate of 3.0% is...

23 years

67

Boreal forests are generally...

slow-growing because of the cold temperatures

68

Which of the following is a biotic population control mechanism?

pathogens

69

Which of the following demographic categories best identifies Country "C"? (high fertility, high infant mortality, low life expectancy, low per-capita income, low doubling time)

less developed

70

The most industrialized country listed is...

country A (low fertility per female, low infant mortality, high life expectancy, high per-capita income, high doubling time)

71

Which of the following factors would explain the seemingly irrational behavior of a father who smokes (high risk factor for baby), but throws away his baby's teething rings that may contain phthalates (seemingly low risk factor for baby)?

people tend to downplay risks that are associated with activities they are committed to or enjoy, most people do not understand the concepts of probability, news media can give a biased view of hazards, and people tends to have an irrational fear of certain technologies that are not as well understood.

72

Hazardous substances ____ while toxins are _____.

are dangerous substances; poisonous substances

73

Which of the following is an intraspecific interaction?

territoriality

74

Allergens are substances that...

activate the immune system

75

What aquatic ecosystem phenomenon is illustrated in the diagram below?

vertical stratification (water level, epilimnion, thermocline, hypolimnion, benthos)

76

What environmental factor does not change between "b" (epilimnion) and "e" (benthos" in the diagram above?

light penetration, temperature, nutrient availability, and oxygen content all change

77

Oxygen levels are lowest in what section in the diagram above?

"E" (benthos)

78

Endocrine disruptors...

disrupt normal hormone functions

79

Density-independent population control factors cause mortality...

regardless of population size

80

An organisms with ___ "strategies" would be considered to have ____ natality.

r-adapted; high

81

The term "fecundity" refers to an organism's ___ while fertility is ___.

physical ability to reproduce; actual number of offspring produced.

82

Historically, the greatest threats to human health came from...

pathogenic organisms

83

Genetic diversity is lost in a small population when...

only a few individuals survive a catastrophe

84

Malthus argues that ____ is the ultimate cause of social and environmental problems and Marx argued that population growth ___ social and environmental problems.

excess population growth' results from.

85

The longest period of life that a given type of organism can reach is known as...

life span

86

Which of the following is not a density-dependent control factor?

drought

87

Coral reefs form in...

warm, clear, tropical seas

88

If solubility is an important characteristic in toxic material movement in the environment and body, which of the following statements is true?

oil-soluble compounds accumulate in the body

89

Health organizations now use the ___, a tool to ____.

DALY; judge the total impact of the disease rather than only measuring how many people die

90

Bioaccumulation is a term that describes the way cells...

selectively absorb and store molecules

91

The histogram on the left small top, wide middle, small bottom) represents a population whose birth rates...

have recently decreased

92

The population represented by the age class histogram on the right(pyramid shape) will...

grow substantially in the future

93

Highly persistent toxic chemicals...

retain their toxicity as they cycle through the food chain and environment

94

In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population. Yet, a "superfly" with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?

exponential growth

95

Survivorship is determined by...

the percentage of a cohort to a certain age

96

Island biogeography explains the phenomenon of ___ terrestrial species on islands mall and far from the mainland when compared to larger islands that are closest to the mainland and have ____ terrestrial species.

fewer; more

97

A chemical interaction in which one substance exacerbates the effects of another is termed...

synergism

98

Predation is considered to be a(n) ____ factor.

extrinsic and biotic

99

Barrier islands are formed of...

wind- and wave-deposited sand

100

Tundra biomes occur....

at high latitudes and altitudes, where the growing season is short

101

When Aldo Leopold said, "The first rule to intelligent tinkering is to save all the pieces" in terms of biodiversity he meant that we should...

not cause species to disappear

102

Approximately how many species have been identified on Earth?

a little more than 1.5 million

103

Which of the following is not a benefit of biodiversity for humans?

aesthetics, ecological services, food, and drugs and medicines are all benefits

104

Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a...

decreased in biodiversity

105

A species that is naturally rare or that has been depleted to dangerous levels is known, according to the Endangered Species Act, as a ___ species.

vulnerable

106

The stratified horizontal layers of soils are called soil...

horizons

107

DDT accumulation in North American eagles, pelicans, and other birds disrupted birds' calcium metabolism, causing...

thin eggshells

108

Which of the following are inorganic pesticides?

arsenic, copper, and mercury

109

Developed countries produce ____ of all industrial wood and account for ___ of its consumption.

less than half; about 80%

110

Monoculture forestry involves...

single-species tree plantations that are efficient but offer little biodiversity.

111

Undernourished parents often raise children who are undernourished because the parents...

cannot afford to fee their children properly

112

Food security has to do with...

the ability of a population to obtain food on a day-to-day basis

113

Which of the following is the most correct definition of soil?

a complex mixture of organic matter, minerals, and living organisms.

114

In this scenario, which community has the highest species richness?

community a (21 species, 50 individuals of one species and 3 each other the other 20 species)

115

In this scenario, which communities have the same species evenness?

none of the communities has the same species evenness

116

If you have an aquarium with saltwater fish, 75% of your fish probably came from...

wild fish populations caught with cyanide or nets

117

Why is it useful to classify pesticides by their chemical structure?

similar chemical structures often relate to similar toxicological characteristics

118

The process that happens when pesticide residues evaporate from soil and water in warm areas and then condense in and precipitate in colder regions is called...

the grasshopper effect

119

The richest farming soils that form under the grasslands of central North America and under moist deciduous forests are the...

mollisols and alfisols

120

Economically, monoculture forestry is advantageous because...

it produces large quantities of a single type of tree for a particular use, such as building timber or paper pulp

121

Corridors have the potential to effectively enlarge which of the following?

preserve areas, genetic pools, feeding ranges, and areas of refuge against natural disasters

122

People can suffer malnourishment if they consume large amounts of ___ instead of ___.

fat and sugar; vitamins and protein

123

Ecological diversity is a measure of the number of...

niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes of a biological community.

124

The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is...

habitat destruction worldwide

125

About what portion of world freshwater withdrawals is used for agriculture?

2/3

126

One of the drawbacks of leaving crop residues on a field after harvest is increased...

pest and disease problems

127

Poor people in developing countries often threaten wildlife preserves because...

they need the resources to survive

128

Anemia is a common disease resulting from a shortage of dietary...

iron

129

People who subsist on starchy foods such as cassava, potatoes, and white rice...

often receive insufficient protein.

130

Conservationists and wildlife managers use gap analysis to...

find unprotected landscapes that are rich in species

131

In developed countries, the most recent increases in agricultural productivity have come from...

irrigation, increased fertilization, and new crop varieties

132

A broad-spectrum biocide is designed to kill...

a wide range of living organisms

133

The pesticide treadmill occurs when...

constantly increasing doses of pesticides are needed to control pests.

134

One possible solution to the problem of insufficient land area for preserves is to use ___ to link smaller habitat areas.

corridors

135

What are two common diseases that result from protein deficiencies?

marasmus and kwashiorkor

136

The three crops that humans rely on for the majority of nutrients and calories are...

wheat, rice and maize (corn)

137

Most humans rely on just a few of the world's animal and plant species for food because only a few...

food type are what we are accustomed to eating

138

Most of the livestock grown in North America are...

confined in CAFOs

139

Introduced (exotic) species tend to___ the balance of ecosystems and ___ biodiversity

upset; decrease

140

The objective of a species recovery plan is to...

increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered

141

Which of the following cannot be found in soil?

fungus, algae, bacteria, and insects are all found in soil.

142

Which of the following pesticide types is extremely toxic to workers who apply them?

fumigants

143

An important role of the CRP is to...

pay farmers to take highly erodible land out of production

144

Which of the following statements is true?

humans may have been causing extinction thousands of years ago, but our impact has recently increased

145

Legumes are plants whose roots contain bacteria that can fix ___ and naturally fertilize the plant.

nitrogen

146

Pesticide resistance occurs when a population of pests...

genetically changes (through natural selection) and is no longer affected by the chemicals

147

Extinction is the term used when all members of a species...

die

148

The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because...

we consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable

149

Rill erosion can lead to...

gully erosion

150

Annual row crops such as ____ cause the highest erosion rates because ___

corn and beans; soil is left bare for the majority of the year.