test 3 Flashcards Preview

environmental science > test 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in test 3 Deck (63):
1

Ecological diversity is a measure of the number of...

niches, trophic levels and ecological processes of a biological community

2

If managed carefully, ecotourism benefits natural areas by giving economic value to land and water resources...

without destroying them

3

Corridors have the potential to effectively enlarge which of the following?

preserve areas, genetic pools, feeding ranges, and areas of refuge against natural disasters

4

Why is it useful to classify pesticides by their chemical structure?

similar chemical structures often relate to similar toxicological characteristics

5

The efficiency of irrigation water use it ___ in most countries. One of the reasons for this is ____

low; evaporative losses from unprotected water channeling

6

Biological hotspots are those areas with...

at least 1500 endemic species and 70% loss of habitat

7

Most public rangelands are in poor condition due to..

overcrowding of private livestock

8

The three crops that humans rely on for the majority of nutrients and calories are...

wheat, rice and corn

9

The Green Revolution began out of a need to do which of the following..

feed those in India and Pakistan who were suffering great famines

10

Annual row crops such as ____ cause the highest erosion rates because ___.

corn and beans; soil is left bare for the majority of the year

11

The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is...

habitat destruction worldwide

12

Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n)...

decrease in biodiversity

13

According to the Harvard Food Pyramid, which of the following should be eaten sparingly?

red meat

14

It takes 8 kg of grain to produce which of the following?

1 kg beef

15

Which of the following are inorganic pesticides?

arsenic, copper, and mercury

16

Food security has to do with...

the ability of a population to obtain food on a day to day basis

17

Which are two common diseases that result from protein deficiencies?

marasmus and kwashiorkor

18

Pesticide resistance occurs when a population of pests...

genetically changes (through natural selection) and is no longer affected by the chemicals

19

Which of the following can be found in soil?

fungus, algae, insects, and bacteria are all found in soil

20

Rill erosion can lead to...

gully erosion

21

Which of the following is true about aquaculture operations?

supplies 1/2 of seafood eaten globally, 1/3 of the wild fish caught are used for food for these operations, large quantities of feces and antibiotics are released to the waters, and forests and wetlands are being destroyed to build these operations

22

A promising approach to encourage conservation and preservation in developing countries is...

debt-for-nature swaps

23

The process that happens when pesticide residues evaporate from soil and water in warm areas and then condense in and precipitate in colder regions is called...

the grasshopper effect

24

Economically, monoculture forestry is advantageous because...

it produces large quantities of a single type of tree for a particular use, such as building timber or paper pulp

25

Which of the following is NOT a risk associated with intensive food production?

increased yields

26

Anemia is a common disease resulting from a shortage of dietary...

iron

27

The parent material layer of a soil is composed of weathered...

rock fragments

28

People can suffer malnourishment if they consume large amounts of ___ instead of ___.

fat and sugar; vitamins and protein

29

A species that is naturally rare or that has been depleted to dangerous levels is known, according to the Endangered Species Act, as a ___ species.

vulnerable

30

A species in imminent danger of extinction is classified by the U.S. Endangered Species Act is...

endangered

31

The pesticide treadmill occurs when...

constantly increasing doses of pesticides are needed to control pests

32

____, ____, and ____ are the largest producers of both paper pulp and industrial wood.

Russia, Canada, and the United States

33

High responder crops of the green revolution produce tremendous yields...

in response to fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation

34

Which of the following textural classifications is most suited for agricultural production?

loam

35

Soil organisms usually stay ____ the soil.

close to the surface of

36

The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because...

we consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable

37

With respect to chemical pest controls, integrated pest management (IPM) uses...

the minimum amount necessary as a last resort

38

The objective of a species recovery plan is to...

increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered

39

Wind erosion is most likely to cause problems in...

open, arid regions

40

The stratified horizontal layers of soils are called soil...

horizons

41

Conservationists and wildlife managers use gap analysis to...

find unprotected landscapes that are rich in species

42

A broad-spectrum biocide is designed to kill...

a wide range of living organisms

43

Semi-dward wheat differs from conventional wheat in which of the following ways?

higher yields than conventional wheat, resists lodging as compared to conventional wheat, and responds better to more fertilizer and water than conventional species

44

Developed countries produce ___ of all industrial wood and account for ___ of its consumption.

less than half; about 80%

45

Most of the livestock grown in North America are...

raised in CAFOs

46

The acronym that stands for habitat, destruction, invasive species, pollution, human population and over harvesting is...

HIPPO

47

DDT accumulation in North American eagles, pelicans, and other birds disrupted birds' calcium metabolism, causing...

thin eggshells

48

Although most of the world's forests are shrinking, biologists are especially concerned about tropical forest loss because...

they contain such high biodiversity

49

Ecological diversity is a measure of the number of...

niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes of a biological community

50

Approximately how many species have been identified on Earth?

1.7 million

51

Which of the following is a benefit of biodiversity for humans?

aesthetics, ecological services, food, drugs and medicines

52

The total number of living species is probably...

between 3 and 50 million

53

Biodiversity hotspots are...

areas that contain at least 1500 endemic species and have lost 70% of their habitat

54

The richest farming soils that form under grasslands of central North America and under moist deciduous forests are...

mollisols and alfisols

55

In developed countries, the most recent increases in agricultural productivity have come from...

irrigation, increased fertilization, and new crop varieties

56

Stratified horizontal layers of soil are called...

horizons

57

Wind erosion is most likely to cause problems in...

open, arid regions

58

Rill erosion can lead to...

gully erosion

59

Who was the father of the Green Revolution?

Norman Bourlaug

60

High responder crops of the Green Revolution produce tremendous yields...

in response to fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation

61

An important role of the Conservation Reserve Program is to...

pay farmers to take highly erodible land out of production

62

Which of the following is not a risk associated with intensive food production?

increased yields

63

At the current pace of fish harvesting, the world's fisheries will be exhausted by...

2050