Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (188)
What is pericarditis?
inflammation of the pericardial sac that causes a rubbing noise
What is the purpose of valves?
to prevent backflow
What creates heart sounds?
S1 is the closure of the AV valve
S2 is the closure of the semilunar valve
What causes a heart murmur?
a disruption in the flow of blood
What is stroke volume?
the amount of blood ejected per ventricle per beat
What is the cardiac output?
the amount of blood pumped by the ventricles into the pulmonary and systemic circulations in one minute
What is ejection fraction?
the percent of blood ejected from ventricles
What is the normal ejection fraction?
What is the normal cardiac output?
What is preload?
the ability of ventricles to stretch and go back to normal
What is afterload?
the force needed to eject blood
What is contractility?
the ability of the heart muscle to shorten
What is another name for the Sinoatrial (SA) node?
the pacemaker of the heart
What is a blood pressure?
a reflection of cardiac output.
measure of pressure of blood flow through the arteries
What is the systolic pressure?
pressure that results from contraction of ventricles
What is the diastolic pressure?
pressure of the ventricle at rest
What is pulse pressure?
the difference between diastolic and systolic pressures
What is a normal pulse pressure?
What are determinants of blood pressure?
pumping action of the heart
peripheral vascular resistance
What are non-modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular illnesses?
age, gender, family hx, race, and personal health hx
What are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular illnesses?
smoking, sedentary lifestyle, hyperlipidemia, obesity, DM, HTN
What is mean arterial pressure (MAP)?
constant blood pressure you have
How do you calculate an MAP?
SBP + 2(DBP) / 3
What is an ideal mean arterial pressure?
What three factors determine peripheral vascular resistance?
length of vessel
diameter of vessel
What is primary hypertension?
increase in blood volume and peripheral vascular resistance
What is secondary hypertension?
hypertension caused by something else.
What are some causes of secondary hypertension?
kidney disease, coarctation of aorta, endocrine disorders, neurological disorders, drug use, pregnancy, hypothyroidism, or obstructive sleep apnea
What is prehypertension?
systolic of 121-139 or diastolic of 81-89
where you can intervene with diet, exercise, stress control, and stop progression to stage 1