Flashcards in Test 2 (Chapters 5 - 7) Deck (76)
What was the primary form of law enforcement prior to London Metropolitan Police Act?
- Hue and Cry
- Military Forces
What was the London Metropolitan Police Act?
Sir Robert Peel's proposal for a formal police force.
What were principles behind the London Metropolitan Police Act?
1. The police must be stable, efficient, and organized along military lines.
2. The police must be under governmental control.
3. The absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of police.
4. The distribution of crime news is essential.
5. The deployment of police strength by both time and area is essential.
6. No quality is more indispensable than a perfect command of temper: a quiet, determined manner has more effect than violent action.
7. Good appearance commands respect.
8. The securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency.
9. Public security demands that every police officer be given a number.
10. Public headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the people.
11. Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis.
12. Police records are necessary to the correct distribution of police strength.
Where was the first Police Department in the United States?
Where was the first full time Police Department in America?
What were the four eras of policing?
Political Era, Reform Era, Community Policing Era, Intelligence Lead Policing Era
What characterized the Political Era of Policing?
Politics ran law enforcement, nepotism, corruption
What characterized the Reform Era of Policing?
August Vollmer and O.W. Wilson proposed the idea that law enforcement officers should be educated and that police and government needed to be separated.
Law enforcement is the only entity that can investigate and solve crimes.
What did the Reform Era introduce?
The idea of a written exam and psychological evaluation being used in the selection process.
What is another name for the type of policing introduced in the Reform Era?
What characterized the Community Policing Era?
Law enforcement brings in the community in order to solve and prevent crimes.
What characterizes the Intelligence Lead Policing Era?
Due to diminished and limited resources, law enforcement has to work smarter and send officers of the law to specific locations.
What are the departments of law enforcement on the federal level?
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
- Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
- US Marshals
- Secret Service
- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF & E)
What is the purpose of the FBI?
Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF), High Profile Crimes, Internal Crimes
What is the purpose of the DHS?
Protection of the US and its borders
What is the purpose of the DEA?
Combating drug smuggling and use within the United States
What is the purpose of the US Marshals Service?
Witness/Courthouse Security, Federal Warrants
What is the purpose of the Secret Service?
Protect the President, Identity Theft, Counterfeit Money
What is the purpose of the ATF&E?
Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives monitoring
What are the departments of law enforcement on the state level?
- State Troopers
- Division of Wildlife (DOW)
What is the purpose of the State Troopers?
Monitoring the highways
What is the purpose of the State Police?
Investigate and provide support
In Colorado, there is the CBI. What is it and what is its purpose?
Colorado Bureau of Investigation. Investigates crimes involving narcotics and major crimes
What is the purpose of the Gaming Enforcement?
Casinos are within state statutes, take over investigations inside casinos
What is the purpose of the DOW?
Licenses to hunt, poaching investigations, enforcement
- In Colorado, Biology Reasearch
What are the departments of law enforcement on the local level?
- Police Department
- Sheriff's Office
What is the purpose of the Police Department?
What is the jurisdiction of the Police Department?
How does someone become Chief of Police?
Appointed by Governing Board
What is the purpose of the Sheriff's Office?
- Civil Papers
- Fire Marshal
How does someone become Sheriff?
Elected every four years (only allowed 2 terms) by the people
What are the duties of a police officer?
- Calls for Service/Investigation (mostly Quality of Life Issues rather than crimes)
- Community Relations
What is the 99%, 1% Rule?
99% Boredom, 1% Absolute Terror
What are the three police styles according to James Q. Wilson?
Legalistic, Watchmen, Service
What characterizes the Legalistic style of policing?
Enforces the letter of the law
What characterizes the Watchmen style of policing?
Interactive role in the community; more of a herder and looking for the wolf that would come and kill the sheep
What characterizes the Service style of policing?
Community oriented; make situations good int the community (community relations)
What are the Fundamentals of Law Enforcement?
- Enforce Law
- Order Maintenance
- Calls for Service
- Service Oriented
- Community Relations
What was the Kansas City Police Patrol Study (otherwise known as the
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment)?
A study conducted in Kansas City in the '80s where the aim was to determine the efficacy of different types of patrol.
What were some of the type of patrols studied under the Kansas City Police Patrol Study?
What is Preventative Patrol and was there a change noticed in the study?
Preventative Patrol is driving around in a random pattern in order to prevent crime. There was no change in either crime rates or civilian security.
What is Directed Patrol and was there a change noticed in the study?
Directed Patrol is focusing on a specific crime or action within an area (in this case, Kansas City). There was a reduced crime rate and an increased feeling of security for civilians, but only for the time that the patrols were conducted.
What is Reactionary Patrol and was there a change noticed in the study?
Reactionary Patrol is responding to calls for service (meaning after a crime has been committed). The police are essentially fire fighters where they respond once a crisis has been called in. There was no change in either crime rates or civilian security.
What were some of the problems with the Kansas City Police Patrol Study?
- The variables (most notably those that were supposed to be controlled variables) were unable to be controlled.
- Environmental factors were not accounted for
- Unable to control the areas in which officers patrolled (due to crimes being committed all over the city)
What is crime mapping?
Crime analysts gather information on crimes and then map that information. If there is a correlation, then police would be sent to investigate the "hot spot."
What is the problem with crime mapping?
Often times, the "hot spot" area is very large.
What was Terry v. Ohio?
The case law that determined that a police officer must have reasonable suspicion to stop someone, and that officer must believe that the person they stopped is both armed and dangerous to their well being in order to frisk them.
- Stop: Reasonable Suspicion
- Frisk: Belief that a person is armed and dangerous
What are the two types of investigation conducted during a criminal investigation? Who are they conducted by?
The Preliminary Investigation and the Secondary Investigation (Follow Up). Preliminary Investigations are primarily conducted by patrol officers, while the secondary investigations are conducted by detectives.
What are the steps involved in a Preliminary Investigation?
- Secure the Scene
- Conduct Interviews
- Identifying and Marking Evidence
- Photographs/Drawings/Copy Papers
- Evidence Collection
What is Community Policing?
The involvement of the community in maintaining public order.
What is the "Broken Windows" Theory?
Take care of small crimes, the bigger crimes will likely not occur as a direct result.
What is one of the consequences of the using the "Broken Windows" Theory as a basis for police work?
Crime goes down, but complaints go up.
What is the SARA Model?
A systematic, logical approach to crime.
What does the S in the SARA Model stand for and what is its purpose?
Scanning. Identifying root problems.
What does the first A in the SARA Model stand for and what is its purpose?
Analysis. Understanding underlying problems
What does the R in the SARA Model stand for and what is its purpose?
Response. Developing and implementing solutions
What does the second A in the SARA Model stand for and what is its purpose?
Assessment. Determining the solution's effectiveness
What are the qualities that a person must exhibit in order to become a police officer?
- Problem Solving
- Physical Ability
- No criminal record (No felonies, some misdemeanors are allowed)
- Performs well under stress - Even tempered
- Mentally sound
- Interpersonal Skills
What are the Three I's of Police Selection?
- Interaction Skills
Why is education important in the selection of a police officer?
- College allows for the generation and culmination of problem solving skills
Is education strictly important for an individual?
No. - The police force want people who can articulate themselves and people who can think for themselves - regardless of education.
What is the Selection Process?
2. Written Exam
4. Physical Exam
5. Background Investigation
7. Psychological Exam
What is Discretion in Policing?
The exercise of individual judgement, instead of formal rules, in making decisions.
What is full enforcement?
Every violation warrants an action
What is selective enforcement?
The use of judgement to determine what warrants an action and what doesn't
What is Racial Profiling?
A contextual stop based on race and race alone.
What is the cycle of hyper-vigilance?
The cycle that a police officer goes through. They are at a normal level of stress (above what most are normally at) and the that level elevates drastically when they are called out for service (especially on calls of violent crimes). And then, when they are off duty, they are very relaxed, more than they need to be.
What is psychological inoculation?
The building up of psychological armor that enables a law enforcement officer to push through trauma in order to accomplish their mission/job.
What are some strategies for reducing and managing stress?
- Discuss stressful events with colleagues and mental health professionals
- Regular exercise
- Relaxation techniques
- A healthy diet, without caffeine or nicotine
- Enriched family support
What is the Use of Force Continuum?
- Empty Hand/Soft Control
- Hard Control
- Impact tools
- Deadly force
What did the Tennessee v. Garner case establish?
That a suspect cannot be shot while fleeing a felony. An officer has to be able to justify their use of force.
What are the two types of police corruption?
Meat eaters, Grass eaters
What is a meat eater?
Officers who actively seek ways to make money while on the job.
What is a grass eater?
Officers who occasional engage in illegal and unethical activities such as accepting small favors, gifts, or money.
How can one control or combat corruption?
Education and Monitoring (Put officers into situations where there is corruption and see how they act. Correct negative behaviors.