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1

The basic concepts of American law enforcement and criminal justice originated in
a. New England
b. Spain
c. France
d. England

England

2

According to Peel, the main function of the police was to ___ by ___ of the community.
a. solve crime; active investigation
b. prevent crime; preventive patrol
c. solve crime; preventive patrol
d. prevent crime; active investigation

prevent crime; preventive patrol

3

Which was the first American city to create a paid and unified municipal police force having 24 hour coverage?
a. Boston
b. Chicago
c. Philadelphia
d. New York

New York

4

Which of the following is one of the principles advocated by August Vollmer to professionalize American policing?
a. He believed that the major function of the police was preventing and not fighting crime.
b. He believed that citizens must be given free training in methods of self-policing
c. He advocated that police and politics need to work closely for best results
d. He advocated education as a key ingredient in professionalizing policing.

He advocated education as a key ingredient in professionalizing policing.

5

Which of the following is NOT an emphasis area of community policing?

delivering social services

6

Identify a true statement about community policing.

It called for a shift from incident-based crime fighting to a problem-oriented approach.

7

Why was the U.S. Secret Service created?

to combat counterfeiting

8

One general grouping in your textbook lists four categories of local police duties. Which of the following is Not one of the duties discussed in your textbook?

public education

9

Breaking up a fight, holding back a crowd at a sporting event, or intervening in a domestic dispute before it gets violent are examples of the police duty of

order maintenance.

10

Which of the following is usually NOT a county law enforcement function?

protecting the governor and the capitol grounds and buildings

11

Which of the following federal law enforcement agencies employs the largest number of personnel?

The U.S. Customs and Border Protection

12

Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency?

Patrol (Preventative Patrol)

13

Patrols that are "systematically unsystematic" and observant in an attempt to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or ____ patrol.

preventive

14

In ___ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime analyses that identify problem areas.

directed

15

When an entire patrol section is instructed to make numerous traffic stops and field interrogations, the practice is referred to as ____ patrol.

aggressive

16

One of the more important functions of traffic units is to

all of the answers are correct

17

Identify a true statement about community policing.

Critical decisions are required to be made at the neighborhood level.

18

Following are three parts of the acronym "SARA", which some community policing advocates recommend as a four-step problem-solving process. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of Sara?

Arrival - determining the situation's timeliness

19

Which of the following drug enforcement strategies accounts for the greatest number of drug arrests and seizures in the United States?

street-level enforcement

20

Which federal agency is tasked with investigating drug crimes?

DEA

21

Following are the three I's of police selection. Which one of these does NOT belong?

intuition

22

Police work is intrinsically satisfying because it is

all the answers are correct

23

Which of the following is an advantage of hiring college-educated police officers?

all of the answers are correct

24

The movement to limit the discretion of police officers is the result of

abuses of that discretion

25

Racial profiling often occurs during ___, where policy justify stopping a car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might be otherwise ignored

pretext stops

26

Which of the following is defined as the harmful physical and emotional outcomes that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of an employee?

job stress

27

In the context of types of corruption in police departments, which of the following misconducts is performed by grass eaters?

accepting gifts for ignoring violations of the law

28

Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to control participants in a conflict?

excessive force

29

Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court decisions severely restricted the police use of deadly force?

Tennessee v. Garner

30

The practice of relying on the judgment of the police leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide which laws to enforce is referred to as

selective enforcement

31

___ are officers who actively seeks ways to make money illegally while on duty.

Meat eaters

32

Which of the following is NOT a type of police misconduct identified by Ellywn Stoddard?

panhandling

33

The Supreme Court addresses the legal issues that are argued during their sessions. What are the arguments presented to the Supreme Court based in?

Law

34

What is the purpose of the Preliminary Hearing?

Determine probable cuase

35

Courts having the power to review a case for errors of law are courts of ___.

appellate jurisdiction

36

Which of the following state courts has the authority to try all cases, both criminal and civil?

Trial courts of general jurisdiction

37

At the municipal level when a fine is paid for an offense such as speeding, the fine that is paid is called a ___.

civil forfeiture

38

Identify the correct order of pretrial stages.

Arrest, booking, initial appearance, preliminary hearing

39

The 18th Judicial district is considered a ___ level court.

State

40

For which of the following uses do laws specify that restitution may be court ordered?

all of the answers are correct

41

Which of the following factors influences a judge's sentencing decision?

all of the answers are correct

42

Which of the following is NOT a type of determinate sentence?

Presumptive sentence.

43

What was the primary rationale for punishing criminal offenders between the 1870's and 1970's?

Incapacitation and Retribution

44

Which of the following methods of execution currently is used by the most states?

Lethal Injection

45

The term ___ is defined as the attempt to correct the personality and behavior of convicted offenders through education, vocational, or therapeutic treatment and to return them to society.

rebahilitation

46

In the context of sentencing, judges are limited by the US Constitution's ___ prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment and statutory provitions.

8th Amendment

47

Which of the following is NOT a judicial sentencing option?

The suspension of an entire sentence

48

From biblical times through the eighteenth century, ___ was the dominant justification for punishment

retribution

49

Which of the following is a right granted to crime victims in at least some jurisdictions?

All of the answers are correct

50

Which of the following statements is true about the Pennsylvania system of confinement?

It required that inmates be kept in solitary cells so that they could study religious writings, reflect on their misdeeds, and perform handicraft work.

51

Which of the following terms is a theory of institutional corrections, popular during the 1940s and 1950s, in which crime was seen as symptomatic of personal illness in need of treatment?

Medical Model

52

When offenders are sentenced to the custody of the department of corrections in most states, they are transported initially to a ___.

jail

53

For which of the following purposes is most of jail funding used?

custody and security

54

Which of the following is a reason for the problems that plague jails?

all of the answers are correct

55

At the end of 2012, which types of facilities have the least amount of security between guards and inmates?

minimum-security facilities

56

Holding suspects or defendants in jail without giving them an opportunity to post bail because of the threat they pose to society is called

preventive detention

57

Contextual stops based on race and race alone is considered racial profiling.

True

58

Detectives usually have the cards stacked against them and their chances of solving crimes are low.

True

59

Illegal drug use in the United States is widespread and stable

True

60

Capital punishment is the ultimate form of incapacitation.

True

61

Transportation was a popular form of banishing criminals from society in early European times.

True

62

The medical model of American corrections focus on rehabilitation

True

63

The most frequently incarcerated demographic is white and male

True

64

Inmates with special needs are often seen in jail and prison populations

True

65

Inmates are provided educational services while incarcerated

True

66

Inmates are not provided counseling services while incarcerated.

False

67

Bail for a person who is incarcerated can be in the form of cash

True

68

Release on Recognizance is a form of bail

True

69

The purpose of the defense attorney is to create a doubt with the jury

True

70

The United States operates an adversarial judicial system.

True

71

Jail and prison overcrowding is a problem in the United States.

True

72

As an institution of social control, criminal justice differs from the family, schools, organized religion, the media, and the law in that it

is generally society's "last line of defense"

73

Like the family, schools, organized religion, the media, and the law, criminal justice is a(n)

institution of social control

74

American criminal justice consists of three main agencies. Which of the following is NOT one of those three main agencies?

Prisons

75

Which of the following types of offenses is punishable by death in the United States?

Felony

76

Often, an arrest supported by ___ and ___ is sufficient to close a case, especially with a less serious crime.

witness statements; crime scene evidence

77

After an arrest has been made, the suspect is brought to the police station to be

booked

78

The purpose of ___ is for a judge to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that the defendant committed the crime or crimes with which he or she is charged.

a preliminary hearing

79

About ___ of criminal defendants plead guilty to the charges against them in an arrangement called plea bargaining.

95 percent

80

Currently, five general types of punishment are in use in the United States. Which of the following is NOT one of these punishments?

transportation

81

Because there is considerable conflict and confusion between different agencies of criminal justice, an accurate way of defining American criminal justice may be to call it

a nonsystem

82

When politically conservative values are dominant in society, the principles and policies of ___ seem to dominate the operation of criminal justice.

the crime control model

83

The most import aspect of the crime control model of justice is

the control of criminal behavior

84

A major problem with the crime control model is that a presumption of guilt goes against one of the oldest and most cherished principles of American criminal justice. What is this principle?

Defendants are considered innocent until proven guilty.

85

A typical ___ definition of crime is behavior that violates the norms or mores of society.

social

86

A(n) ___ is a any standard or rule regarding what human beings should or should not think, say, or do under given circumstances.

norm or social more

87

The term ___ refers to criminal conduct - specifically, intentional or criminally negligent action or inaction that causes harm

Actus Reus

88

If a person did not want to commit a crime but was forced or coerced to do so against his or her will, he or she committed the crime

under duress

89

Which of the following terms is defined as a legal defense against criminal responsibility when a person, who was not already predisposed to it, is induced into committing a crime by a law enforcement officer or by his or her agent?

entrapment

90

Which of the following terms is defined as the failure to take reasonable precautions to prevent harm

negligence

91

The Latin term ___ refers to criminal intent or a guilty state of mind.

mens rea

92

Which of the following terms is defined as mental or psychological impairment or retardation as a defense against a criminal charge?

insanity

93

Which of the following terms is defined as a collection of crime statistics and other law enforcement information published annually under the title "Crime in the United States"?

The uniform crime report (UCR)

94

Which of the following theories assumes that crime is committed by free-willed individuals who are motivated by a hedonistic rationality

classical

95

Which of the following theories is based on the belief that criminals are physiologically different from noncriminals?

biological positivism

96

According to body-type theory, an athletically built individual would be classified under the ___ body type

mesomorphic

97

With whom are psychoanalytic theories of crime causation associated?

Sigmund Freud

98

For Emile Durkheim, the cause of crime is ___, that is, the dissociation of the individual from the ___.

anomie; collective conscience

99

Edwin H. Sutherland's ___ states that persons who become a criminal do so because of contacts with criminal definitions and isolation from noncriminal definitions.

differential association theory

100

From the perspective of ___, people are expected to commit crime and delinquency unless they are prevented from doing so

learning theory

101

Which of the following situations might be construed as a seizure, even if the person in question does not attempt to leave?

all of the answers are correct

102

Which of the following stands of proof must law enforcement officers have before a magistrate or other specified judicial officer can legally issue a search or an arrest warrant

Probable Cause

103

Which of the following amendments protects an offender from compelled self-incrimination?

5th Amendment

104

In the context of the U.S. Constitution, the ___ protects individual privacy against certain types of governmental interference

4th Amendment

105

A violation of the civil law is called a(n)

tort

106

___ is a formal means of social control that involves the use of rules that are interpreted, and are enforceable, by the courts of a political community. The function of the rules is to set limits to the conduct of the citizens, to guide the officials (police and other administrators), and to define conditions of deviance or unacceptable behavior

Criminal law

107

Which of the following penal sanctions is used primarily to prevent undesired conduct and to provide retribution?

punishment

108

In common law, the decision in a particular case becomes a potential basis, or ___, for deciding the outcomes of similar cases in the future.

precedent

109

The ___ protects American citizens from "unreasonable searches and seizures."

4th Amendment

110

A(n) ___ is a written order from a court directing law enforcement officers to conduct a search or to arrest a person

warrant

111

Which of the following standards of proof is more than a gut feeling and legally permits a law enforcement officer to stop and frisk a suspect?

reasonable suspicion

112

In which of the following cases was the exclusionary rule extended to state courts?

Mapp v. Ohio

113

Under the USA PATRIOT Act, the FBI may now search private records (financial, medical, library, student - any recorded activity) without a warrant and probable cause and without having to reveal to anyone what it has done. This is referred to as what type of search?

sneak-and-peak search