Test 1 (Chapters 1-4) Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 101 > Test 1 (Chapters 1-4) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 (Chapters 1-4) Deck (43)
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1

Due Process

Slow, Methodical. Concerned more with protecting the innocent than punishing the guilty.

2

Crime Control

Fast, Efficient. Concerned more with getting people in and out of the Criminal Justice system as quickly as possible.

3

Crime

No universal definition.

4

Crime - Legal Definition

An intentional violation of law or penal code

5

Social norm

What is considered acceptable in society. Varies between groups, locations, and times.

6

Defenses of crime

Insanity, Duress, Necessity, Culpability, Entrapment, Self-Defense

7

Categories of Crime - 3 Categories

Public Order
Violent
Property

8

Categories of Crime - 2 Categories (F/M)

Felonies
Misdemeanors

9

Categories of Crime - 2 Categories (Mala)

Mala in se
Mala prohibita

10

UCR

Unified Crime Reports: National survey conducted that gains voluntary information about crimes.

11

NCVS

National Crime Victimization Survey: Asks people if they've been the victim of a crime and asks them to describe it.

12

NIBRS

National Incident Based Reporting System: Provides more details than the UCR about crimes.

13

Classical School of Criminology

People have free will and thus will commit crimes in order to give themselves or others pleasure or pain.

14

Neoclassical School of Criminology

Same as the classical, but there are mitigating factors that inhibits a person's free will: Insanity, Duress, Age, Etc.

15

Positivists

People who believe that there are reasons other than free will that cause people to do crimes.

16

Biological

Biochemistry causes crime.

17

Sociological

Crime is a social fact.

18

Learning Theories

Crime is committed because it is positively or negatively reinforced or is imitated.

19

Components of a Law

Politicality, Specificity, Regularity, Uniformity, Penal Code

20

Politicality

Brought up by a state

21

Specificity

Defined by specific acts

22

Regularity

Applies to everyone, regardless of social class

23

Uniformity

Punishment applies to everyone, regardless of social class

24

Penal Code

The crime is punishable

25

Tort

Violation of civil law

26

Probable Cause

The articulated facts and circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime has been committed and that a person has probably committed that crime.

27

Reasonable Suspicion

The articulated facts and circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime is going to happen, is happening, or has happened.

28

Search Warrant Exceptions

Hot Pursuit, Within Arms Reach, Emergency, Inevitable Discovery, Plain View, Consent

29

Common Law

Precedents

30

4th Amendment

No illegal searches and seizures

31

5th Amendment

No self-incrimination

32

6th Amendment

Speedy and Public Trial

33

8th Amendment

No cruel and unusual punishment

34

14th Amendment

Due Process

35

Exclusionary Rule

Evidence obtained illegally cannot be used against a person in court

36

PATRIOT Act

Allows the federal government to do searches and seizures that they normally wouldn't be able to because they have reasonable suspicion that a person involved in terrorism.

37

Terry V. Ohio

Stop and Frisk

38

Stop

If you have reasonable suspicion, you can stop someone

39

Frisk

Armed and Dangerous

40

Mala in se

"Wrong in themselves". Crimes that are wrong at anytime and anywhere.

41

Mala prohibita

Lending your neighbor your vacuum in Denver. Crimes that in one location, but not in another.

42

Weeks v United States

Established the Exclusionary Rule on a federal level

43

Mapp v Ohio

Established the Exclusionary Rule on a state level