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1

two types of glands:

endocrine - synthesize and release hormonoes - epithelial tissue

endocrine (epithelial tissue)- secretions through excretory ducts, contents modified in duct

2

classification of exocrine glands

based on the type of secretion, mode of secretion, and cell numbers

3

type of secretion (exocrine)

mucous, serous, mixed, sebaceous

4

mode of secretion (exocrine)

merocrine, apocrine, holocrine

5

mucous glands

-Secrete mucinogens, large glycosylated proteins (PAS positive), that when hydrated form a thick (viscous), protective fluid called mucin. Mucin is a component of mucus.
-Examples, include goblet cells and mucous cells of the stomach
-Mucus can form plugs – example, respiratory passageways of asthmatics
-nucleus on/near basement membrance ands ecretory product on top (clear)
MOSTLY CLEAR STAINING

6

serous glands

-Secretions are watery in consistency and enriched with enzymes
-Examples are parotid gland and exocrine pancreas, salivary glands
ACIDOPHILIC- DARKER

7

mixed glands

-Contain serous and mucous secretory units
-Examples are submandibular and sublingual gland

8

sebaceous glands

-glands of the skin secrete a waxy, oily substance called sebum – HORMONE activity acne vulgaris
-nucleus in center of cell and clear (secretory product) around

9

merocrine

-Occurs via exocytosis; no loss of plasmalemma or cytoplasm
-Most common mode of secretion
-also mammary glad uses

10

apocrine

-Secretory product is released along with apical cytoplasm and apical plasmalemma
-Lipids from the lactating mammary glands are secreted in this manner.

11

holocrine

-The entire cell and its secretory product is released
-Cells of sebaceous glands

12

acne

Hair shaft penetrates the hair follicle, eliciting inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Inflammatory cells, giant cell, and fibrosis are observed.

With hormones sebaceous glads get activated

13

most common type of secretion

merocrine

14

cell numbers (exocrine)

unicellular
multicellular

15

unicellular

-Individual secretory cells are found in the epithelium
-Example is the goblet cell found in the GI tube and respiratory airways

16

multicellular

-Multiple cells may be organized into secretory sheets (surface mucous cells lining stomach) or secretory tubules with no ducts
-Multiple cells may also organize into secretory units and ducts
-sheets, branching, tubular, coiled,

17

classification of endocrine glands

based on shape of the secretory unit and nature of their duct system

18

adenomas

bengin cancers

19

adenocarcinomas

malignant cancers

20

shape of secretory units

acinus (alveolus) - grape looking
tubular

can contain both

21

duct system of secretory units

-simple - single, unbranched extratory duct conveys the secretory product from the secretory unit to the epithelial surface. Some simple glands do not possess a excretory duct (i.e., intestinal glands, glands of the stomach)
-compound - branching ducts exist which converge to form a single duct that opens onto the epithelial surface

22

intralobar ducts

-found within the lobule of the exocrine gland - intercalated disks, striated ducts (not in all glands)

23

interlobular ducts

found in the connective septa that separate lobules

24

interlobar

receive the interlobular ducts and drain the lobes of the gland

25

main duct

the main duct - duh

26

Myoepithelial cells

-(basket cells) - contractile cells derived from the epithelium
-actin & myosin
-surround secretory units of multicellular glands (mammary, sweat, large salivary) and small ducts and share the basal lamina of these structres
-connected to the epithelial cells by desmosomes and gap junctions
-contraction = secretion from cell - calponin needed for contraction

27

what type of intermediate filament d oepithelial derived cells contain?

presence of cytokeratins
confirms the epithelial origin of myoepithelial cells

28

compound glands

ducts are branched

29

example of single duct but tubular gland secretory units branched (still simple)

tongue and esophagus

30

parotid gland

-Classification – compound acinar
-Purely serous
-Intralobular ducts: intercalated and striated
-Interlobular ducts
-Mumps parotitis

31

submandibular gland

-Classification – compound tubuloacinar
-Mixed gland with secretions being primarily serous; demilune cells are serous cells. Note serous demilunes are artifacts of conventional fixation.
-Intralobular ducts: intercalated ducts are short and striated ducts are prominent
-Interlobular ducts

32

sublingual gland

-Classification – compound tubuloacinar
-Mixed gland with secretions being primarily mucus; serous cells almost exclusively exists as serous demilunes
-Intralobular ducts are less developed than those of other salivary glands

33

Sjögren syndrome

-autoimmune disease
-Patients have dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and dry mouth (xerostomia)
-Occurs alone or with another autoimmune disease
-Salivary and lacrimal glands are infiltrated with predominately CD4+ T cells; glands become fibrotic
-Serologic marker antibodies are directed against two ribonucleoproteins: SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La)
-Typically occurs in women between 50-60 years of age
-Difficulty swallowing, speaking, and tasting; cracked lips
-Parotid gland enlargement in 50%
-Lymph nodes are enlarged with B cell infiltration
-Extraglandular manifestations include synovitis, pulmonary fibrosis and peripheral neuropathy

34

pancreas

-Classification – compound acinar
-Similar to the parotid gland but is distinguished by the presence of islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets), centroacinar cells (unique to the pancreas), and the absence of striated ducts. NO STRIATED DUCTS
-Ducts: Intercalated ducts – centroacinar cells represent the intra-acinar segment of the intercalated duct; Larger intralobular ducts; Interlobular ducts; Duct cells secrete bicarbonate

35

ducts of the lobule

smallest to largest: intercalalted duct (simple cuboidal epith), striated duct (cuboidal to columnar epit; nucleus at basal domain and rest is highly acidophilic), intralobular duct (cuboidal to columnar epith; nucleus at center and acidophilic around; lots of CT)

36

ducts between lobules

interlobular ducts- pseudostratified columnar epith

37

serous demilunes

-found in mixed glands like submand or subling
conventional fixation --mucous parts are centrally located and serous are pushed out to periphery ARTIFACT - not found in life -
-if rapidly frozen then serous demilunes go away = serous are interspersed in the centrally located mucous parts
-dumps into intercalated disk

38

simple tubular EX

intestinal glands - intestinal glads of lieberkun

39

Unicellular EX

goblet cell

40

simple branched tubular EX

glands of the stomach
duodenal glands
uterus

41

multicellular sheet EX

luminal surface of stomach

42

simple acinar EX

paraurethral glands

43

simple branched acinar EX

sebaceous gland

44

simple coiled tubular EX

sweat glands

45

compound acinar EX

pncreas
parotid

46

compound tubular EX

bulbourethral glands

47

compound tubuloacinar EX

submandibular
sublingual

48

integument

largest organ - includes: skin, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair and nails

49

skin functions

-protect from microorg and dehydration
-reg of body temp
-reception -touch pressure pain and temp
-absorption of UV for Vit D
-excretion by sweat glands

50

thick skin

-thick epidermis - palms and soles
-no hair follicles, sebaceous, of arrector pili
-has sweat glands
-abrasion & wear/tear
-dome shaped ridges on surgace - fingerprints

51

thin skin

- thin epidermis - covers most of body
-has hair follicles, arrector pili m, sebaceous and sweat glands

52

epidermis

- OUTERMOST layer - from ectoderm
-stratified squamous keratinized
-epidermal ridges to increase surface area and to stick to dermis via basement membrane (hemidesmosome)
-avascular - nutrients from dermal capillaries
-sensory nerve endings present
-damaged in first degree burns

53

strata of thin skin

THINNER- statum corneum
THINNER - stratum spinosum
stratum basale - mitosis area - cells get pushed up from here

54

strata of thick skin

-Stratum Corneum (protection)
-Stratum Lucidum (protection)
-Stratum Granulosum (waterproofing)
-Stratum Spinosum (binding, protection)
-Stratum Basale (Germinativum)

55

stratum corneum (THICK)

(protection): Flattened, desiccated, keratinized, dead cells, thick layer. This layer becomes thicker in areas that are subject to unusual amounts of friction (resulting in callus formation); No nuclei or organelles in cells; Keratin filaments and amorphous matrix; No desmosomes between cells of surface layers to bind cells together, thus cellular remnants closest to the surface can easily desquamate. Continuously desquamate; Cells in deeper aspect of this stratum have desmosomes
-Stratum Lucidum (protection)

56

Stratum Lucidum (THICK)

LAYER 2: (protection):Is a subdivision of the stratum corneum, is a light-staining layer; Perceptible in thick skin; No organelles or nuclei, nonviable cells; Keratin filaments - dead cells

Tissue clear looking

57

Stratum Granulosum (THICK)

LAYER 3: (waterproofing): Cells contain nuclei, apoptotic nuclear morphology (fragmentation of DNA); Keratohyalin granules, consist of soft keratin (proteins); Membrane-coating granules (also called lamellar bodies, contain lipid); Exocytosis of lipid-rich substance to form sheets of waterproof material. This substance forms a permeability barrier and prevents the diffusion of nutrients in extracellular space from reaching the cells, thus it causes cells in more superficial layers to die of starvation
-DNA is degrading in these cells - about to die - release lipids which waterproof but also prevents spread of nutrients - above= dead cells
Diamond shaped cells -

58

Stratum Spinosum (THICK)

LAYER 4: (binding, protection): Thick, prominent stratum; Cells have interdigitating processes (intercellular bridges) (like “teeth of zipper") with desmosomes; "Prickle cell" (spiny) appearance; Bundles of intermediate filaments (tonofilaments) (cytokeratin); Tonofilaments in cells of upper layers form bundles (called tonofibrils); Membrane-coating granules (lamellar granules - contain lipid substance); Mitosis in basal layer of this stratum; Langerhans cells

Tissue: cells have spine-looking railroad tracks (desmosomes)

59

stratum basale (THICK)

LAYER 5: Germinativum: (cell renewal, anchors epidermis to basement membrane): Single layer of cells: Desmosomes bind cell membrane to all neighboring cell; Most intense mitotic activity occurs in this layer; Rests on basement membrane; Cells of this layer attach to basement membrane via hemidesmosomes

60

keratinocytes

-epithelial cells
-Most common cell type
-Continuous skin renewal by mitotic activity (at night) in cells of basal layers of epidermis
-Keratin filaments accumulate as cells approach the surface
-Desquamate (every 20 - 30 days)

61

Non keratinocytes of skin

-langerhans cells (dendritic cells)- defense
-merkel cells - mechanoreceptors
-melanocytes - protect DNA of skin

62

merkel cells

-nonkeratinocyte - mechanoreceptors
-They relay discriminative (fine, detailed) touch sensation about the texture and shape of objects
-Found among keratinocytes of the stratum basale
-Numerous in fingertips and hair follicles
-MYELINATED BUT Unmyelinated nerve terminals approach Merkel cells to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes

63

langerhans cells

-nonkeratinocytes - for defense
-Derived from precursors in the bone marrow -They pass into the bloodstream which
transports them to the skin
-Take up residence in the epidermis where they differentiate into Langerhans cells
-Reside mainly in stratum spinosum
-Have long, thin cytoplasmic processes which extend into the intercellular space
-Process antigens that enter the skin. Ag is phagocytized, processed and becomes attached to surface of Langerhans cell. Cell travels to a regional lymph node where these antigen-presenting cells interact with lymphocytes
-Birbeck granules (vermiform granules) - tennis racket looking

Tissue sections: cytoplasmic processes; birkeck granules-vessicle and rod(look like tennis racket)

64

melanocytes

-nonkeratinocytes - protect from sun damage
-Arise from neural crest cells
-Synthesize a pigment, melanin (natural sunscreen) and distribute it to neighboring keratinocytes
-Reside between cells in the stratum basale and superficial dermis
-Their cytoplasmic processes extend into the intercellular spaces of the stratum spinosum
-RER synthesize tyrosinase, which is then
packaged by GA into melanosomes
-Tyrosinase is activated by UV light; Tyrosine (a.a.) is transported into melanosomes where tyrosinase converts it into melanin
-The number of melanocytes varies in different areas of the skin (i.e., there are fewer melanocytes on the inside surface of the arms and thighs, and the palmar surface of the hand and plantar surface of the foot - than there are in the outer surface of the arms and thighs, and the dorsal surface of the hand and foot.
-The total number of melanocytes is about the same for all races. Pigmentation of the skin is due to tyrosinase activity, number of melanin granules, size, distribution, and rate of breakdown, rather than numbers of functional melanocytes.
-donate to basal and spinosum layer - its prcesses go into cells and release vessicles into cells

65

what glues epidermis to underlying dermis?

basement membrane

66

layers of dermis

papillary layer
reticular layer

67

dermis detials

-connective tissue layer of skin - strength, -nutrition, defence, sensation, stretch, thermoreg
-Arises from mesoderm
-Provides structure and strength via a protein, collagen
-Dermal papillae extend into overlying epidermis where they interdigitate with epidermal ridges projecting into the dermis. Areas that are subject to increased mechanical stress (the palms of hands and soles of feet, covered by THICK skin) display prominent epidermal ridges, dermal papillae and true dermal ridges. True dermal ridges are oriented parallel to and lie in between dermal papillae. Dermal ridges are genetically unique and form the distinctive pattern of “fingerprints” and “footprints”

68

papillary layer

-Superficial layer of Dermis
-Forms dermal papillae that interdigitate with epidermal ridges
-Consists of a thin layer of loose CT, role in defense mechanism
-Type III collagen fibers = (RETICULAR fibers)
-Elastic fibers
-Anchoring fibrils (type VII collagen) extending from the basal lamina, anchor epidermis to dermis
-Fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells
-Abundant capillary loops (for nutrition, thermoregulation)
-Meissner corpuscles - mechanoreceptors
-Krause end bulbs- function unclear
-Superficial second degree burns extend into this layer

69

meissner corpuscles

mechanoreceptors

70

capillary loop purpose

nutrition and thermoreg

71

reticular layer

-inner layer of dermis
-Dense irregular collagenous CT
-Type I collagen fibers, form bundles, have a regular orientation, form regular lines of tension (Langer’s lines) in skin, provide tensile strength. Surgical incisions oriented parallel to Langer’s lines produce minimal scaring
-Thick elastic fibers, stretch
-Proteoglycans - rich in dermatan sulfate
-Fibroblasts, mast cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, fat cells
-Contains hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands
-Pacinian corpuscles - detect pressure, vibrations
-Ruffini corpuscles - tensile forces (numerous in soles of feet)
-Deep second degree burns extend into this layer

72

hypodermis

-superficial fascia
-loose CT deep in dermis and is NOT part of the skin
-has adipose
-thrid degree burns here

73

eccrine sweat glands

-thermoregulation
-(“eccrine” refers to “how” the gland secretes: it squirts)
-Scattered throughout skin, secrete sweat, thermoregulation
-simple coiled tubular glands
-located deep in dermis or hypodermis
-Coiled duct opens into sweat pore on surface of epidermis
-Merocrine secretory method (“merocrine” indicates “what” is secreted)
-Innervated by postganglionic sympathetic fibers (sympathetic fibers “piggy-back” on the wall of arterial vessels to their destination), cholinergic endings

74

secretory segment of eccrine sweat glands

simple cuboidal to low columnar (can be pseudostratified)

75

myoepithelial cells in eccrine glands

-Surround the secretory unit
-Covered by basal lamina of the secretory cells
-Contain actin and myosin filaments (for contraction)
-Filaments "squeeze" secretory product

76

duct segment of eccrine sweat glands

stratified cuboidal epith

77

apocrine seat glands

-In axilla, areola of nipple and anal region
-Modified apocrine glands include the
-Ceruminous (wax) glands of the external auditory meatus
-Glands of Moll of the eyelids
-Larger than eccrine glands
-In deep dermis and hypodermis
-Duct opens into canal of the hair follicle, superficial to the entry of the sebaceous gland duct
-Secretory Unit- Simple cuboidal to low columnar; Lumen is larger than that of eccrine glands; Secretory product is viscous and odorless when released on to the skin surface, then metabolized by bacteria; Myoepithelial cells surround secretory unit
-Apocrine gland secretion is influenced by hormones and start functioning at puberty; Innervated by postganglionic sympathetic fibers; Release secretory product via the merocrine method

78

sebaceous glands

-(sebum: protection)
-In dermis and hypodermis, throughout the body, more numerous in the scalp, face
-Secrete sebum (cholesterol, triglycerides and dead cells)
-Are appendages of hair follicles, empty sebum into the canal of the hair follicle
-Influenced by hormones, active after puberty
-Acinus- Small basal cells: immature stem cells in periphery; rest on basal lamina--Larger round cellsmature, degenerating cells
-Duct: Stratified squamous epithelium; Holocrine secretion

79

vellus hairs

short
soft
fine
pale
on eyelids

80

terminal hairs

long
hard
coarse
dark
scalp and eyebrows

81

lanugo hairs

on fetus

82

hair follicles

cosnists of hair bulb which =
1) Hair root:Matrix;Dermal papilla
2) External root sheath - glassy membrane outside this - like basement membrane
3)Internal root sheath: Henle's layer (outer); Huxley's layer (middle); Cuticle (inner)
3) Hair shaft: Medulla (inner); Cortex (middle); Cuticle (outer)

83

arrector pili muscles

A. Smooth muscle
B. Attach to hair follicle midway, obliquely, when they contract, raise hair
C. "cradle" sebaceous glands
D. Sympathetic innervation

84

nails

A. Nail plate (hard keratin)
B. Nail bed – consists of stratum basale and stratum spinosum
C. Nail root:Nail matrix – nail growth occurs here – forms keratin which forms nail plate
D. Proximal nail fold- Eponychium (is the cuticle, consists of stratum corneum)
E. Lateral nail folds
F. Lateral nail grooves
G. Lunula – crescent-shaped area at base of nail, appears white
H. Hyponychium

85

Formed elements of blood

erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets (thrombocytes)

86

hematocrit

blood elements centrifuged
-amount (%) of RBC when blood centrifuged (men 45%, women 40%, newborn 55%)-
-other elements buffy coat, and plasma

87

plasma

90% yellowish water (bile) or whitish (chylomicrons)
AND
10% organic and inorganics: proteins, hromones and sig molecules, electrolytes, dissolved gases

88

components of blood: proteins and their origin

albumin (liver)
globulins (iver)
clotting proteins (liver)
complement proteins (liver)
lipoproteins (liver mostly)

89

albumin and origin

-protein component LIVER
-maintains colloid osmotic pressure and transport. Loss of albumin leads to edema.

90

Globulins and origin

-protein component of blood
-α- (e.g., ceruloplasmin, AAT, protein C) and β-globulins (e.g., transferrin, angiostatins, plasminogen) (LIVER)
-Gamma-globulins (PLASMA CELLS) – antibodies

91

clotting proteins and origin

-protein component of blood
-prothrombin, fibrinogen, and accelerator globulin, aka factor VII (LIVER)

92

complement prtoeins and origin

-protein component of blood-(LIVER) immunity and inflammation

93

liporproteins and origin

-protein component of blood
-transport cholesterol and triglycerides

94

Erythrocytes

-biconcave disk-increases surface to area ratio
-no organelles to make room for hemoglobin
-males 5mil/mm3
-females 4.5mil/mm3
-glycophorin A,B,C- trnsmembrane function unk
-band 3-antitransport - transmembrane protein for HCO3 and CL transport = increases CO2 concentration in blood
-antigens on surface:A,B,O, Rh

95

polycythemia

elevated erythrocyte concentratios

96

anemia

decrease in the packed volume of eryhtrocytes or a reduction in hemoglobin concentration

97

normal hemoglobin level

circa 15g/100mL

98

skeleton of erythrocyte

-Band 4.1 protein anchor cytoskeletal elements by binding spectrin, glycophorin, and actin
-Band 3, band 4.2, ankyrin and spectrin form another complex.
-Adducin (a calmoduli3n-binding protein) promotes actin-spectrin association
-Mutations in ankyrin, band 3, spectrin, or band 4.2 disrupt the tethering interactions. This is called hereditary spherocytosis. Spherical shaped erythrocytes are sequestrated and destroyed by the spleen leading to anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly.
-Elliptocytosis is caused by mutations in spectrin, protein 4.1 or glycophorin C.

99

Erythroblastosis fetalis

issue with Rh- mother and SECOND Rh+ child... destruction of fetal RBC by mother - need to treat prior to birth to protect child

100

Kell, Duffy, and Lewis RBC antigens

Kell KILLS - immunogenic blood transfusion
Duffy DIES - immunogenic
Lewis LIVES

101

Duffy system antigens are used by which health issue?

malarial parasites

102

Howell-Jolly Bodies

-Small basophilic nuclear fragments in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes
-The nuclear fragments are removed (pitted out) by macrophages in the spleen
-Are present in patients with severe hemolytic anemia, dysfunctional spleens, or after splenectomy.

103

Reticulocytes

-The immediate precursor to a mature erythrocyte
-Cytoplasm displays specks of basophilia due to clusters of ribosomes – some synthesis of hemoglobin is still occuring
-Make up about 1% of the erythrocyte population

104

significance of increased number of reticulocytes

indicate that the body has demand for oxygen that is currently not being fully met (e.g., hemorrhage, recent ascent to a higher altitude)

105

Heinz bodies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

-Inclusions of damaged hemoglobin as a result of oxidative damage (most common trigger is infective due to release of oxygederived free radicals.
-Spleen macrophages remove the Heinz bodies and damaged membranes forming bite cells

106

granulocytes:

-neutrophils/ polymorphs
-eosinophils
-basophils

107

elevated count of neutrophils due to:

increase in band cells (immature version) acute bacterial infection - called a "SHIFT TO THE LEFT"

108

neutrophils/polymorphs

-most numerous
-3-5 lobed nuclei in mature cells
-immature neutrophils released from bone marrow have band or rod shaped nuclei (BAND CELLS)
-specific (secondary) granules - light pink and have antimicrobial enzymes
-azurophilic (primary) granules = lysosomes - neutrophils are phagocytotic
-tertiary granules - MIGRATORY -to help cell to migrate into tissue- gelatinase (degrades collagen), cathepsins (degrade proteins), and glycoproteins. Gelatinase and cathepsins are released to degrade the basal lamina and elements of the ECM thus facilitating migration of neutrophils into the tissue.
-Döhle body: Represents dilated rER; Seen in infections and some other conditions

109

band cells

immature neutrophils that have a banded nucleus after release from bone marrow

110

eosinophils

-Bilobed nucleus
-Specific granules stain dark pink to red and contain various substances, two of which are highly effective in destroying parasites (i.e., major basic proteins – this agent is also damaging to epithelial cells – and eosinophilic cationic protein)
-Azurophilic granules are lysosomes. Lysosomes help to destroy parasites and to phagocytose antigen – antibody complexes

111

basophils

-hardest to find
-S-shaped nucleus that is obscured by basophilic specific granules
-Specific granules are dark blue and contain histamine, heparin, eosinophilic chemotaxic factor, neutrophilic chemotaxic factor, and peroxidase.
-Azurophilic granules (lysosomes)
-While mast cells are similar to basophils they have different origins. Thus, a mast cell is not a basophil that has migrated into the tissue space.

112

Agranulocytes

-(do not possess specific granules in their cytoplasm but do contain nonspecific, azurophilic granules)
-lymphocytes
-monocytes

113

elevated lymphocytes due to...

viral infection

114

lymphocytes

-20-25% of total leukocyte population
-about the size of a RBC - pretty small
-narrow rim of basophilic cytoplasm containing a small volume of organelles though ribosomes are abundant - whole cells is mostly spherical nucleus-Nucleus is prominent
-Azurophilic granules = lysosomes
-Three types: B lymphocytes (humoral-mediated immunity), T lymphocytes (cell-mediated immunity), and natural killer cells

115

what is the most numerous leukocytein children younger than 8yr old?

lymphocytes

116

three types of lymphocytes:

-B-lymphocyte=humoral mediated immunity
-T-lymphocyte=cell mediated immunity
-natural killer cells

117

monocytes

-Large cells
-Large nucleus that is typically described as being kidney-shaped (indented nucleus)
-Cytoplasm is blue-gray in color
-Numerous azurophilic granules which represent lysosomes
-Migrate into the tissues where they differentiate into macrophages

118

Platelets (thrombocytes or thromboplastids)

-Platelets are fractured megakaryocytes
-Function in blood clotting and tissue repair
-contractile cells
-membrane system - open canalicular system and dense tubular system: control Ca concenteation

119

four zones of platelets

-Peripheral – plasma membrane and glycocalyx
-Structural – microtubules and actin and myosin monomers. The microtubular array maintains the shape of the platelet, whereas the actin and myosin monomers can polymerize and form a contractile apparatus.
-Membrane – open canalicular system and dense tubular system:control Ca concenteation
-Organelle: Mitochondria, Glycogen granules, Peroxisomes
-Three types of granules: alpha, delta, and lambda (these are lysosomes)

120

spherocytosis

point mutation in Band 3, Band 4.2, ankyrin, or spectrin - reduced strutucral integrity of cell = sphrical -- eliminated quickly by macrophages in the spleen = anemia and enlarged spleen

121

elliptocytosis

point mutations in glycophorin, Band 4.1 or spectrin - reduced structural integrity of cell = elliptic RBC - more rapidly eliminted by spleen macrophages - enlarged spleen

122

suffix –cytosis means:

used to denote an increase in number of cells

123

suffix –penia means

used to denote a reduction in number of cells

124

decreased basophil count due to

acute allergic rxn

125

Erythrocytes INC/DEC CONDITIONS

INC:Decreased oxygenation (e.g., high altitude, lung disease, and heart disease)
Renal cell carcinoma

DEC: Hemolytic anemia
Pernicious anemia
Disruption of myeloid tissue (e.g., cancer, radiation)

126

Neutrophils INC/DEC CONDITIONS

INC:Acute bacterial infections (first line of defense)
Inflammatory processes

DEC:Many viral infections
Massive infection

127

Eosinophils INC/DEC CONDITIONS

INC: Allergic reactions
Inflammatory bowel disease
Parasitic infestation

DEC: corticosteroid use

128

basophils INC/DEC CONDITIONS

INC: Hypothyroidism, Hodgkins Lymphoma

DEC: Acute allergic reactions

129

Lymphocytes INC/DEC CONDITIONS

INC: Viral infections
Tuberculosis
Lymphocytic leukemia is a common cause of a significant elevation

DEC: HIV

130

Monocytes INC/DEC CONDITIONS

INC: Inflammation

DEC: RARE

131

Platelets INC/DEC CONDITIONS

INC:Splenectomy

DEC:Splenic sequestration (hypersplenism)