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Flashcards in Test 4-2 Deck (160):

hypothalamus secretes

gonadotropin releasing hormone - secreted by neurosecretory cells--> primary cap plexus---> hypophyseal protal veins --> secondary cap plexus ---> (goes to ant pituitary cells) the basophils (gonadotropes)


basophils (gonadotrope cells)...

part of ant pituitary - synth and secrete folicle stim hormone and lutenizing hormone



-secreted and synth by basophils(gonadotropes).
-Stimulates maturation of an ovarian follicle and prepares the enclosed oocyte for ovulation



-secreted and synth by basophils(gonadotropes).
-LH spike stimulates ovulation- release of egg from ovary


granulosa cell

surround maturing oocyte in prep for ovulation
-produce and secrete estrogen and progesterone= influence the uterine lining (the endometrium) to prepare for possilbe implantation


following ovulation.../

the granulosa cells remain behind ni the ovarian cortex form the corpus luteum= temporary endocrine gland


if fertilized then...

-corpus luteum is maintianed (CL of preganancy) via hCG released by the well-developed syncytiotrophoblast of the chorian (part of placenta).
-Corpus luteum produces estrogen and PG to maintain the endometrium and pregnancy


if NOT fertilized then...

-CL of menstruation produced estrogen and PG for 14 days to maintain endometrial lining.
-then it degenerates into corpus albicans and endometrium is shed


Ovary - germinal epithelium

simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium.
-thin and clear


cancers most ofetn arise from which lyer/

germinal epithelium - 70% of cancers


ovary- tunica albuginea

-(whitish capsule) dense irregular collagenous CT,
-structural integrity


ovary - Cortical region

-connective tissue stroma (framework) with smooth muscle fibers and many ovarian follicles. Is compact.
-Oogenesis: oocytes (eggs) mature here.


ovary - Medullary region

-is the core of the ovary.
-It consists of a stroma of loose connective tissue, and numerous blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves.
-Is spongy.
-nourishment for ovary



the process by which mature ova are produced.


Sex cells

-gametes = egg, sperm
-contain 23 chromosomes,
-are haploid n


Somatic cells

-body cells
-contain 46 chromosomes
-are diploid (2n)



is a reduction division which occurs only in germ cells


oogenesis and meiosis

-2 sequential meiotic cell divisions = msingle mature ovum and 3 polar bodies


prenatal primordial germ cell duplication (prior to meiosis)

46 single chromatid chromosomes (2n - 2d) --> duplicate during the S-phase
of Interphase ---> form 46 double chromatid chromosomes (2n - 4d)


Meiosis I

-begins prenatally (during embryonic period
-At the onset of Meiosis I, there are 46 (double chromatid) chromosomes in the developing primordial germ cells.
-Meiosis I begins and then STOPS at PROPHASE and remains "suspended" / “dormant” in prophase I until just before ovulation (sometime between the ages of 12 - 50 years).
-Note that once a primordial germ cell enters Meiosis I, it is referred to as a primary oocyte, and at prophase I, it is still (2n - 4d), since Meiosis I has not been completed yet.


OVaries at Birth

-AT BIRTH, 1* oocytes: are the only cells within "primordial follicles" in the newborn ovarian cortex, suspended in prophase I.
-These 1* oocytes remain dormant in prophase I for about 12 - 50 years, depending on when the follicle around each oocyte matures and the oocyte is ovulated.


prior to ovulation

-Prior to ovulation of an oocyte, Meiosis I RESUMES.
-It progresses from Prophase I through Metaphase I, Anaphase I and Telophase I, COMPLETING Meiosis I.
-During Anaphase I, the homologous, double chromatid chromosome pairs -- separate -- and each resultant cell inherits half of the chromosomes = 23 (double chromatid,) chromosomes.
-At the end of Meiosis I the resultant cell is called a 2* oocyte and a polar body#1


Meiosis II

-prior to Meiosis II there is NO DNA replication = NO INTERPHASE
-Begins immediately after Meiosis I (prior to ovulation, while the oocyte is still in the ovarian cortex).
-This division will progress to and will STOP and remain suspended at Metaphase II, in a mature (Graafian) follicle.



-At ovulation, the 2* oocyte is in Metaphase II and is released into the uterine tube hovering over the ovary.


at fertilization

-Meiosis II will be completed to give rise to a mature ovum (1n - 1d) only if the 2*oocyte is fertilized by a sperm.
-sperm provides a molecular signal for the resumption and completion of meiosis II.
-During Meiosis II, each of the 23 (double chromatid) chromosomes (sister chromatids) split, and each resultant cell (gamete) inherits 23 (single chromatid) chromosomes = Mature ovum and polary body#2
-polar body#1 also split into 2 more polar bodies = degenerate



Begins at puberty and continues throughout the reproductive years (puberty - menopause).


Ovarian follicles consist of

an oocyte surrounded by a layer or layers of epithelial follicular or granulosa cells.


1* oocyte in prophase I contains

-primordial follicles
-growing follicles= primary follicle (unilamilar and multilaminar) and secondary (antral) follicles


2* oocyte in metaphase II at ovulation contains

Mature (Graafian) follicles


Primordial follicle

1. primary oocyte (in prophase I)
2. simple squamous follicle cells with desmosomes
3. basal lamina
4. formed prenatally
5. is dormant, most immature follicle in ovary
6. primordial follicles are present in ovary at birth and until menopause


Maturation of the oocyte takes place in

the primary follicle


Primary follicle

-oocyte matures here
a. primary oocyte (in prophase I) produces activin which stimulates stratification of the follicle cells
b. zona pellucida, is an acellular, gel-like (viscous) membrane begins to form. It consists of GAG's and glycoproteins (is PAS+), that are secreted by the oocyte
c. simple cuboidal follicle cells
d. basal lamina



-produced by primary oocyte in prophase I
-stimulates stratification of the follicle cells


Late primary follicle

a. primary oocyte (in prophase I)
b. zona pellucida
c. mitosis, formation of stratified cuboidal granulosa cells (membrana granulosa), is avascular. Note that “follicular” cells are called “granulosa” cells from this stage of follicular dev’t on.
d. gap junctions between granulosa cells
e. granulosa cells have filopodia, oocyte has microvilli
f. filopodia and microvilli perforate the zona pellucida, and they contact one another by gap junctions
g. basal lamina
h. theca folliculi – encapsulates follicle
i. theca interna – begins to form
a) cellular, steroid-secreting cells with SER, mitochondria and lipid droplets
b) cells have LH receptors. LH stimulates cells to produce androgens (androstenedione) which is converted into estradiol by granulosa cells
c) theca interna is richly vascularized due to its endocrine functions


Secondary (antral) follicle

a. primary oocyte (in prophase I)
b. zona pellucida
c. stratified granulosa cells secrete fluid (liquor folliculi = plasma transudates, GAG's, protein, proteoglycans, androgens, PG and estrogens)
d. multiple fluid-filled antral cavities form
e. basal lamina
f. theca interna
g. theca externa – fibrous (collagenous) connective tissue
encapsulates follicle. Smooth muscle cells present


Mature (Graafian) follicle

1. contains a primary oocyte (in prophase I) which progresses to secondary oocyte (in metaphase II) just prior to ovulation
2. zona pellucida
3. corona radiata consists of a single layer of granulosa cells that immediately surround (crown) the oocyte. This layer of granulosa cells pulls away from the oocyte while their filopodia are still in the zona pellucida, creating a "radiating crown"
4. membrana granulosa, cumulus oophorus and corona radiata all
consist of granulosa cells. Cumulus oophorus is a mound of granulosa cells containing the oocyte FSH stimulates granulosa cells to convert androgens to estrogens Estrogens stimulate the proliferation of granulosa cells, causing enlargement of the follicle
5. liquor folliculi
6. the small antral cavities fuse to form a single fluid-filled cavity, the antrum
7. theca interna
a. LH stimulates cells of theca interna to release androgens which in turn are converted to estrogens
8. theca externa



the release of a 20 oocyte from a mature (Graafian) follicle


Process of ovulation: ALL OF IT

1) FSH and LH released by basophils (gonadotropes) from ant pit around day 14 = NEED FOR OVULATION
2) mature follicle is close to and protrudes like a blister from the ovarian surface before ovulation
3) Meiosis I resumes in response to LH surge
4) Primary oocyte (suspended in Prophase since before birth) completes meiosis I (Meta I, Ana I, and telo I) to give rise to a secondary oocyte
5) Meiosis II begins immediately and the secondary oocyte progresses to and remains suspended at metaphase II
6) granulosa cells surrunding oocyte deach from interior of follicle
7) oocyte surrounded by zona pellucida and granulosa cells (corona radiata) float in liquor folliculi
8) follicular stigma - clear pale spot forms on the ovary over the follicle as blood flow to this area ceses
9) proteases break down cortical stromal tissue covering follicle- forms path for oocyte to leave ovary
10) granulosa wall ruptures releasing the oocyte and liquor folliculi
11) secondary oocyte in metaphase II, covered by zona pellucida and granulosa cells is released (OVULATION) into the hovering open end of the fallopian tube-> Enters fallopian tube = viable for 24 hours
12) ovulation pain = some females experience
13) following ovulation= granulosa cells thecal cells of the co llapsed mature follicle left behind, remaining embedded within the ovarian cortex are transformed into a temp ndocrine gland = corpus luteum (CL)
14a) NOT FERTILIZED=> granulosa and thecal cells left in the ovarian cortex are referred to as the CL of menstruation. Produces estrogen and PG for 14 days to maintain the endometrium but after that it degernerate = corpus albicans--> estrogen and PG levels drops and endometrium sheds
14b) FERTILIZED=> blastocyte implants. Granulosa and thecal cells in ovarian cortex become CL of pregnancy.
-CL of prego persists past 2nd half of menstrual cycle bc it is maintained by the hCG released by the syncytiotrophoblast of the chorion (placenta) CL of prego produces estrogen and PG to maintian endometrium and pregnancy
-granulosa cells differentiate into the granulosa lutein cells===> produce extrogens and PG===> stimulate the maturation and glandular activity of the endometrium preparing the uterine lining for possible implanttion
-theca interna cells dif into the theca lutein cells
-corpus albicans - dense CT scar formed after the corpus luteum regresses following menstruation of pregnancy


basis of most pregnancy tests=

presence of hCG in the urine


Stein-Leventhal syndrome.

polycystic ovarian disease AND pt has oligomeorrhea (scanty menstruation)


polycystic ovarian disease

-mutl cysts form on ovaries = become enlarged
-due to abn thickened tunica albuginea (TA) covering the ovaries == potential genetic basis
-the thcikened TA = fluid filled cysts bc secondary follicles that try to rupture CANT = infertility
-need to restore estrogen-progesterone balance to fix for some people


zona pellucida during fertilization of the secondary oocyte consists of

ZP-1, ZP-2 and ZP-3 glycoproteins.


ZP-3 funcions as

the spermatozoa-binding receptor and induces the acrosome reaction.


ZP-2 functions as

secondary spermatozoa-binding protein


sperm penetrating egg and ZP

-first layer to get through= corona radiata of granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte
-THEN they encounter the ZP
-binding to ZP3 induces acrosome reaction (enzymes released -hyaluronidases= sperm can facilitate perforation of ZP) THESE ENZYMES ARE NOT ENOUGH THOUGH -SON OF A...
-hyperactivation (w/ influx of Ca ions into sperm tail) of sperm near secondary oocyte = sperms tail is on crack(hyperactive) and it can then get through with the hyaluronidases



1. Infundibulum - trumpet-shaped, displays fimbriae, free end opens into the peritoneal cavity. Fimbriae facilitate the capture of the oocyte at ovulation so that it can pass into the lumen of the fallopian tube
2. Ampulla - dilated portion, 2/3 of tubes' length; longest and widest part - normal site of fertilization
3. Isthmus - connects tube to uterus, is constricted
4. Uterine (intramural) part - extends into uterine wall


uterine tube layers

1. MUCOSA - is thrown into longitudinal folds which are most numerous in the ampulla. Folds increase its surface area
a. Epithelium - simple columnar
i. ciliated cells – have a brush-like surface. Wave of cilia sweep oocyte in direction of the uterus. The cilia of these cells are not believed to have any beneficial effect on sperm motility and velocity
ii. nonciliated peg cells - produce nutrient-rich, protective secretions for oocyte, sperm, or zygote
b. Lamina propria - loose connective tissue
2. MUSCULARIS- smooth muscle
- thick layer of circular (spiral) fibers (inner)
- thin layer of longitudinal fibers (outer)
- produces rhythmic peristaltic waves (alternating contraction and relaxation) that facilitate the movement of the oocyte from the infundibulum to the ampulla
-Peristaltic waves pass toward the uterus
3. SEROSA- mesosalpinx which invests the uterine tube - visceral peritoneum (mesothelium and thin layer of LCT )



The uterus is the site of implantation of the blastocyst. It protects and nurtures the developing embryo and fetus during its 9-month gestation


uterus layers -

1) endometrium
2) myometrium


endometrium of uterus

a. epithelium - simple columnar
i. ciliated cells
ii. nonciliated secretory cells - secrete glycoproteins.
b. lamina propria (endometrial stroma) - simple branched tubular glands (uterine glands), fibroblasts, dense irregular collagenous connective tissue
i. stratum functionale (functional layer) - sloughed off at menstruation. Note that in a pregnant woman, the functional layer is referred to as the DECIDUA (which is a special name for the well-developed gravid endometrium). It is this layer that separates (peels off) from the remainder of the uterus after childbirth. So it’s the same layer that sheds during menstruation and after childbirth (easy to remember this way…)
ii. stratum basale (basal layer) - remains to repave the functional layer (epithelium, glands and CT)
iii. blood vessels: the uterine artery gives rise to arcuate arteries
a) 6 - 10 arcuate arteries -in middle layer of myometrium-circumferentially oriented
i) radial arteries: spiral arteries - supply functional layer; straight arteries - supply basal layer


myometrium of uterus

- smooth muscle
a. inner longitudinal layer
b. middle circular layers, with larger blood vessels
c. outer longitudinal layer
d. during pregnancy the smooth muscle cells of the myometrium undergo hypertrophy (an increase in size of existing smooth muscle cells) and hyperplasty (an increase in the number of smooth muscle cells, via mitotic cell division)


perimetrium of uterus

-outer layer (consists of a or b below)
a. serosa: mesothelium and loose connective tissue
b. adventitia: connective tissue which attaches to surrounding structures



- lower cylindrical part
1. lining - simple columnar epithelium, mucous-secreting
2. 85% tough fibrous DCT, elastic fibers, some smooth muscle fibers (less than uterus)
3. vaginal part (ectocervix) - stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epitheliu
4. mucosa - cervical glands = branched, mucous


Nabothian cyst

result from secretions obstructing the ducts of the cervical glands


control of cervical glands by

-ovarian hormones
-amount and consistency determined by stage of menstual cycle
-helps with transport of sperm
-secretion is less viscous = helps with sperm travel


menstrual cycle phases

1) menstrual phase (1 - 4 days).
2) proliferative (follicular, estrogenic) phase (4 - 15 days).
3) secretory (luteal, progestational) phase (15 - 28 days)


menstrual phase (1 - 4 days).

1. if the ovulated oocyte is not fertilized, and implantation does not occur, the CL stops functioning in about 14 days
2. PG and estrogen levels decline
3. smooth muscle in wall of spiral arteries contracts
4. blood flow to functional layer decreases (due to spasmodic contraction)
5. functional layer becomes ischemic
6. blood flow to the endometrial lining ceases
7. necrosis of functional layer
8. blood vessels break off, and functional layer of endometrium sloughs off
9. bleeding occurs (menstrual flow). Blood and functional layer are released.


proliferative (follicular, estrogenic) phase (4 - 15 days).

1. uterine mucosa = lamina propria with basal portions of the glands
2. estrogen stimulates proliferation of epithelium, glands, vessels
3. glands consist of straight tubules lined with simple columnar epithelium
4. spiral arteries grow into the repaved (regenerating) endometrial stroma


secretory (luteal, progestational) phase (15 - 28 days)

1. starts after ovulation
2. PG stimulates glands (that were formed earlier in response to estrogen) to synthesize and release glycoproteins. The glycoproteins may nourish the implanted blastocyst (no placenta yet)
3. glands become coiled
4. spiral arteries grow into functional layer of endometrium



-the most common, benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin, in women.
-usually only problem if get large or numerous and cause bleeding - abn bleeding


VAGINA layers

1. epithelium- stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelium, glycogen (met by bacteria = acidic protective environment)
2. lamina propria - abundant elastic fibers, loose fibroelastic connective tissue, lymphocytes, neutrophils. NO GLANDS in its wall
B. MUSCULAR - thin inner layer, circular smooth muscle fibers.
- thicker outer layer, longitudinal fibers, continuous with corresponding uterine layer
C. ADVENTITIA- DCT, thick elastic fibers, venous plexus, nerve bundles


MAMMARY GLANDS epithelium type

-Compound tubuloalveolar glands
-not-pregnant=branching duct system and dense fibrous interlobular tissue


how much DNA in 46 double chromatid chromsomes?



how much DNA in 23 dpuble chromatid chromosomes?



how much DNA in 23 single chromat id chromosomes?



how much DNA in 46 single chromatid chromosomes?



primary oocytes suspended in

PROPHSE I in 2n - 4d


when does primary oocyte continue through prophase I?

-just before ovulation.
-it will continue through meiosis II up to Metaphase II


-if pregnancy occurs, what upkeeps the corpus luteum?
-if NO PREGO, what upkeeps the corpus luteum?

- hCG from syncytiotrophoblast

-gonadotropins from ant lobe of pit


Testes - Tunica Albuginea

1. encloses each testis
2. Consists of dense irregular collagenous CT
3. Mediastinum Testis
a. Is the thickened portion of the tunica albuginea, where the epididymis attaches
b. Is the site where blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels and genital ducts enter or leave the testis
c. Gives rise to incomplete CT septa that radiate into the testis
i. Septa subdivide testis into ~ 250 lobules, the lobuli testis


testes - tunica vasculosa

1. Forms a layer of loose CT deep to the tunica albuginea
2. Has a rich vascular supply and is the vascular capsule" around the testis


Lobuli Testis - lobule contents

a. 1 - 4 coiled seminiferous tubules
b. interstitial cells (of Leydig)
c. loose CT stroma, a highly vascular tissue arising from the tunica vasculosa that serves as a filler tissue, surrounding the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial cells


testis - vascular supply

1. Testicular artery
2. Pampiniform plexus of veins
3. The artery, veins, and ductus deferens form the spermatic cord which traverses the inguinal canal


Seminiferous Tubules - Tunica (Lamina) Propria

-Thin CT layer
-Type I collagen
-3 - 5 layers of myoid cells (contractile) rhythmic contractions produce peristaltic waves to move the spermatozoa through the seminiferous tubules


Sertoli Cells

-(Supporting or Sustentacular Cells) – “nurses”
-tall, columnar, non-repolicating cells after puberty
-apical and lateral cell membrane =highly folded
-clear, ovoid or triangular nucleus, and a prominent nucleolus
-sertoli cell to sertoli cell junctional complex= tight zonula occludens--> bind lateral membranes of adjacent sertoli cells==> compartmentalization of seminiferous epithelium into 1)basal epithelial compartment 2) luminal compartment
-occludens= blood-testes barrier==> physical suport, and physiological support for spermatogenetic cells. (chemical compoenents of seminiferous tubule fluid are dif from plasma and testicular lymph
-BTB separated haploid antigenic secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm from the immune system in the adult
-androgen binding protein - hromones and nutrients- testosterone binds to ABP in the seminiferous tubules which promotes spermatogenesis


seminiferous epithelium (germinal epitehlium)

-Is a stratified epithelium that lines the interior of the seminiferous tubules:unusual epithelium in that it is not like the epithelial tissues that cover or line other body structures.
-In contrast to the other epithelial tissues, the seminiferous epithelium contains -->2 types of cells:
1) spermatogenetic cells (germ cells, gametes) and 2) Sertoli cells (support cells).
-The spermatogenetic cells undergo a progressive differentiation(to form spermatozoa) as they move from the periphery of the seminiferous tubules toward their hollow lumen into which they are released. The spermatozoa then pass through the genital ducts to reach the exterior. As the spermatozoa pass through the genital ducts, the accessory glands (seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands), release their secretory products into the genital duct lumen, to form semen (fluids and sperm).


Compartments of the Seminiferous Epithelium

1) Luminal Compartment (contains:)
i. Spermatozoa (cells closest to the lumen)
ii. Spermatids
iii. Secondary Spermatocytes
iv. Primary Spermatocytes
2) Basal Epithelial Compartment
i. Is basal to the zonulae occludentes (ZO) formed by the Sertoli cells
ii. ZO form the blood-testis barrier which segregates the luminal compartment from the CT, that is, it shields the forming gametes from the immune system
iii. Contains spermatogonia and early primary spermatocytes


where are the sertoli cells and what do they do?

The Sertoli cells span the basal epithelial compartment and luminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. Sertoli cells form zonula occludens junctions that subdivide the seminiferous epithelium into the luminal compartment and the basal epitheliam compartment


Spermatogenic Cells

a. Spermatids (most mature)
b. Secondary Spermatocytes
c. Primary Spermatocytes
d. Spermatogonia (most immature)
e. Umbilical vesicle (yolk sac) gives rise to primordial germ cells which in turn differentiate into spermatogonia



maturation process of spermatogenetic cells
-begins in response to pit gonadotropin release shortly before puberty
-74 days for spermatogomium to transition thrgouh the process of spermatogenesis
-12 more days for sperms to pass through epididymis

3 phases: Spermatogonial, spermatocyte, spermatid


Spermatogonial phase

- Occurs in the basal compartment
a) Is the process by which spermatogonia differentiate into primary spermatocytes
b) spermatogonia (in basal compartment), rest directly on the basal lamina and have 46 single chromatid chromosomes (2n - 2d)
-There are 3 types of spermatogonia:
i) Type A dark spermatogonia
ii) Type A pale spermatogonia
iii) Type B spermatogonia- undergo mitosis to form primary spermatocytes (2n - 2d)
-Prior to Meiosis I, the 46 single chromatid chromosomes (2n - 2d) in the primary spermatocytes duplicate during the S-phase of Interphase to form 46 double chromatid chromosomes (2n - 4d)


Spermatocyte Phase (Meiosis)

-Occurs in the luminal compartment
a) Is the process by which primary spermatocytes differentiate into spermatids
b)p rimary Spermatocytes (in luminal compartment)- Are the largest cells of the seminiferous epithelium. The thick, coiled chromosomes in their nucleus make these cells to appear as if they have a spider in their nucleus. they have (2n - 4d)
-Primary spermatocytes enter Meiosis I, to form secondary spermatocytes that have 23 double chromatid chromosomes (1n - 2d) --->there is no DNA replication prior to Meiosis II
c) Secondary Spermatocytes- Are rarely observed because they enter Meiosis II immediately, to form spermatids that have 23 single chromatid chromosomes (1n - 1d)


Spermatid Phase (Spermiogenesis)

-Occurs in the luminal compartment
a) Is the process by which spermatids are transformed (remodeled) into spermatozoa (sperm)
b) Spermatids-Are very small cells, with round dense nuclei, occur in groups next to the lumen
c) Transform into spermatozoa (sperm) (1n - 1d) -Are nonmotile


Interstitial Cells (of Leydig)

1. Are embedded in the loose connective tissue (LCT) derived from the tunica vasculosa, and are wedged between the seminiferous tubules; appear in groups
2. Are endocrine cells
a. SER, some RER, mitochondria, GA, lipid droplets, no vesicles, crystals of Reinke (function unknown)
b. are stimulated by gonadotropins (FSH, LH) to synthesize and secrete testosterone
i. Testosterone is not stored in vesicles within the cell but is released as soon as it is manufactured, into the extracellular space where it passes into the capillaries
3. Are active during early prenatal development. Become inactive at 5 months of fetal life. Resume androgen production at puberty.


Pathway of Spermatozoa Through the Genital System

Spermatozoa are formed in the seminiferous epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules and then pass through the following genital ducts to reach the exterior of the body → tubuli recti → rete testis → efferent ductules → duct of the epididymis → ductus deferens (vas deferens) → ejaculatory duct → urethra


Intratesticular Genital Ducts

1. Tubuli Recti (L. "straight tubules")
a. Lined by Sertoli cells
b. Lined by simple cuboidal epithelium in the distal end
2. Rete Testis
a. Labyrinthine spaces, "maze"
b. Lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium or low columnar


Extratesticular (Excurrent) Genital Ducts types:

1. Epididymis (contains the efferent ductules and duct of the epididymis) - This is where sperm acquire motility. Motility is likely due to changes in intracellular levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and pH
2. Ductus Deferens (Vas Deferens)
3. Ejaculatory Duct


Ejaculatory Duct

-Extratesticular (Excurrent) Genital Ducts
-Simple columnar epithelium
-Basal lamina
-Subepithelial CT - folded'


Ductus Deferens (Vas Deferens)

-Extratesticular (Excurrent) Genital Ducts
-Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia
b. Basal lamina
c. Loose fibroelastic CT - folded
d. Smooth muscle coat: inner layer - longitudinal; middle layer - circular; outer layer - longitudinal
e. Loose fibroelastic CT
f. Ampulla: Is the dilated end of the ductus deferens; Joins the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct



-Extratesticular (Excurrent) Genital Ducts
-This is where sperm acquire motility. Motility is likely due to changes in intracellular levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and pH
1) Efferent Ductules= pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium (“sawtooth” appearance)
-Basal Lamina
-Thin loose CT
-Smooth muscle cells - circularly arranged
-Function: The apical cell membrane invaginations resorb fluid (that was released by Sertoli cells) from the lumen, by endocytosis
-the cilia sweep the spermatozoa toward the epididymis
2) Duct of Epididymis
-regions: head, body, tail (is a reservoir for mature sperm), tortuous
-Epithelial lining: Pseudostratified columnar
-basal cells (are stem cells)
-Principal cells: Have pinocytotic vesicles and stereocilia (non-motile microvilli) on their luminal surface
-Resorb luminal fluid, clean up cytoplasmic fragments
- Release glycerophosphocholine, a glycoprotein that inhibits sperm capacitation
-Basal lamina
-Loose connective tissue
-Smooth muscle layer - Peristaltic contractions


Seminal Vesicles

-Accessory MALE Genital GlandsEpithelium
1. Epitehlium: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-Short round basal cells (stem cells)
-Tall noncilliated columnar cells
2. Subepithelial CT - is fibroelastic
3. Smooth muscle coat
4. Thin fibrous coat covers the smooth muscle coat
5. Function – controlled by testosterone
a. secretion of viscous, yellow, fructose-rich seminal fluid with a.a.'s, ascorbic acid, prostaglandins, and proteins


Prostate Gland

-Accessory MALE Genital Glands
1. Is the largest accessory gland, chestnut-shaped
2. Capsule
-Dense irregular collagenous CT (highly vascular)
-Smooth muscle cells
3. CT Stroma
-Arises from the capsule
-Same composition as the capsule
4. Tubuloalveolar glands, arranged into 3 concentric layers
-Mucosal layer - inner layer, has small glands
-Submucosal layer - intermediate layer, has larger glands
c. Peripheral layer - has the main prostatic glands, the largest glands
d. Simple to pseudostratified columnar epithelium-Synthesize proteins
e. Prostatic concretions (corpora amylacea)-calcified glycoproteins


Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper's Glands)

-Accessory MALE Genital Glands
1. Located at the proximal end of the membranous urethra
2. Capsule
-Fibroelastic CT
-Gives rise to septa which divide the gland into lobules
3. Compound tubuloalveolar glands
-Simple cuboidal to simple columnar epithelium
-Secrete thick, slippery fluid to lubricate lumen of urethra



-Erectile Tissue- 3 columns, each covered by a dense, fibrous, CT capsule, the tunica albuginea
---> 2 corpora cavernosa - dorsally and 1 corpus spongiosum - ventrally


nodular prostatic hyperplasia

-glycoproteins form in lumen = squeeze urethra = urinary problems in men over 50


Kidney surface

smooth and convex


Hilum of kideny

-is a depression in the kidney's concave surface
1. Opens into the renal sinus
2. Is the site where vessels and nerves pass into or leave the kidney
3. Ureter exits kidney
a. Renal pelvis - is the funnel-shaped, expanded, proximal end of the ureter


Renal Sinus

-Is a fat-filled cavity enclosing the following:
-Branches of the renal artery and vein, lymph vessels
-Ureter and nerve fibers


Capsule (KINDEY)

Its outer layer has collagen and fibroblasts, its inner layer has myofibroblasts


Cortex (KIDNEY)

1. Is the outer region of the kidney
2. The cortical tissue overlying the base of a pyramid is the cortical arch
3. The cortex consists of alternating regions, the cortical labyrinth and medullary rays


Cortical labyrinth - kideny

-consists of the regions between the medullary rays. It contains the following structures:
-Renal corpuscles (L. corpuscle, "little body"); Convoluted tubules (PCT, DCT); Collecting tubules


Medullary rays - kidney

-(400 – 500 longitudinal striations).
-consist of medullary tissue that extends from the base of the pyramids into the
-Each medullary ray consists of: Straight tubules (straight proximal, straight distal); Collecting ducts


msot of blood flowing through kidney is in the ...

cortex --> filtered here by glomeruli


Medulla - kidney

1. Is the inner region of the kidney. It consists of the renal pyramids and the renal columns (of Bertin)
2. Renal pyramids there are 8 - 18 per kidney
a. Apex (is known as the renal papilla, L. "nipple")
i. Area cribrosa (L. "strainer")
a) Consists of ~ 20 openings of the ducts of Bellini
ii. Projects and drains / empties into a minor calyx
b.Base (at corticomedullary border)
3. renal columns (of Bertin) (consisting of cortical tissue), project between the medullary pyramids. They reside within and are part of the medulla. They include: straight tubules (of the nephrons); collecting ducts
4. Vasa recta (L. "straight vessels")
5. 5 - 10% of blood flowing through the kidney is in the medulla


Minor Calyx

-Cup-like, funnel-shaped
-Receives apex of one pyramid


Major Calyx

Several minor calyces converge and open (and drain) into a major calyx ---> INTO RENAL PELVIS


Kidney Lobe consists of:

1. A renal pyramid
2. Associated cortical tissue at the base of the pyramid
3. Associated cortical columns (of Bertin) (one half of each adjacent renal column)
4. The human kidney is multilobar (has multiple lobes)


Kidney Lobule consists of:

-consists of a central medullary ray and surrounding cortical tissue: A collecting duct and all its collecting tubules


Uriniferous Tubule consists of:

-(Nephron + Collecting Tubule)
-It consists of epithelium and is covered by a basal lamina on its exterior

-collecting tubule
-papillary collecting ducts (of bellini)


Nephron compoennts

-part of Uriniferous Tubule
-renal corpuscle
-thin limbs of henles loops
-distal tubule
-proximal convoluted and straight
-collecing tubule


renal corpuscle

--> "little body"
a) Glomerulus (L. “tuft of wool”)
i) is a cluster of fenestrated capillaries
ii) is an arterio-capillary bed
iii) glomerular ultrafiltrate oozes out of glomerulus
by passing through the filtration barrier ==
b) Bowman's Capsule
i) is the proximal end of the nephron
ii) visceral layer of Bowman's capsule: covers glomerulus (cluster of capillaries): is composed of podocytes****
(i) primary (major) processes
(ii) secondary processes (pedicels)- **filtration slits have a slit** diaphragm
iii) parietal layer of Bowman's capsule: simple squamous epithelium: covered by a basal lamina
c) Bowman's space (urinary space)
i) is the space between the visceral and parietal layers of Bowman's capsule
ii) contains ultrafiltrate***
d) Vascular Pole - site where the
i) afferent glomerular arteriole enters the renal corpuscle=Mesangial cells (PHAGOCYTIC CELL - IT CHECKS THE FENESTRATE FOR OCCLUSIONS -- THEY EAT IT AND LET MOER BASAL SHIT TO GROW)
ii) efferent glomerular arteriole leaves the renal corpuscl=greater resistance to blood flow
e) URINARY POLE - contains the initial part of the
i) Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) f) FILTRATION BARRIER – from inside outward, it consists of
i) endothelial surface layer of glomerular capillaries (glycocalyx glycoproteins)
ii) ***fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillary (no diaphragms over fenestrations)
iii) basal lamina****** (produced by endothelium and podocytes)
iv) subpodocyte space
v) visceral layer of Bowman's capsule (podocytes - primary process ( raised off basal lamina) and secondary processes (pedicells- on basal lamina). Pedicells interdigitate with filtration slits bw. Have nephrin protein made diaphragm)
-The filtration barrier has 2 discontinuous layers (ii and v above)


Proximal Tubule (PT)

-->Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
i) simple cuboidal epithelium
ii) striking eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm
iii) microvilli ("striated border")
iv) basement membrane (PAS+)
b) Proximal Straight Tubule (THICK Descending Limb of the Loop of Henle) – similar structure as PCT


Thin Limbs of Henle's Loop

a)Thin Descending Limb – makes a hairpin turn
b) Henle's Loop – is the entire U-shaped portion of a nephron
c) Thin Ascending Limb – segment after hairpin turn
d) entire thin limb is lined with simple squamous epithelium


Distal Tubule (DT)

a) Distal Straight Tubule = (THICK ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle)
i)low cuboidal epithelium with few microvilli****
ii)more mitochondria than cells of PCT
b)Macula Densa
i)modified segment of the distal tubule
ii)between afferent and efferent arterioles
c)Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
i) much shorter and less tortuous than the PCT
ii)wide, clear lumen
iii)pale, granular cytoplasm
iv)smaller cells, more cells per c/s profile


Collecting Tubule

a) Is part of the uriniferous tubule, but not part of the nephron
b. The DCT empties into a connecting tubule or an arched collecting tubule that drains into a cortical collecting duct or a medullary collecting duct
-columnar epithelium


Papillary Collecting Ducts (of Bellini)

a. Are formed as several medullary collecting tubules converge
b. open in the area cribrosa
c. Are lined with tall columnar epithelium

-drain urine into minor calyx


Juxtaglomerular (JG) Apparatus CONSISTS OF

macula densa and the JG cells.
-chemoreceptors only segment that is close to renal corpuscle


Macula Densa is part of and on the

-part of Juxtaglomerular (JG) Apparatus
-on the distal tubule
-columnar cells


JG cells are

-of the afferent glomerular arteriole
a. are modified smooth muscle cells*** in the tunica media of the afferent glomerular arteriole
b. granules contain renin (a proteolytic enzyme)


Extraglomerular Mesangial Cells

-Reside in the interval bordered by the
i. Afferent arteriole
ii. Macula densa
iii. Efferent arteriole
iv. Vascular pole of the renal corpuscle


Renal Interstitium

1. Contains a small amount of connective tissue
2. Fibroblasts, Macrophages


Kidney Blood Supply

Renal artery → anterior and posterior division → segmental arteries → lobar arteries → interlobar arteries → arcuate arteries → interlobular arteries → afferent glomerular arterioles


Excretory Passages of kidney

-Minor Calyx
-Major Calyces
-Pelvis of the Kidney (Renal Pelvis)
-Urinary Bladder


Minor Calyx

1. Funnel-shaped
2. Receives urine from the renal papilla of a single renal pyramid
a. Renal papilla is covered by transitional epithelium
3. Lined by transitional epithelium*****
4. Lamina propria
5. Smooth muscle layer


Major Calyces

1. May receive urine from up to 4 minor calyces
2. Structure is similar to minor calyces


Pelvis of the Kidney (Renal Pelvis)

1. Funnel-shaped, upper expanded portion of ureter
2. Structure is similar to minor and major calyces



1. Mucosa - is thrown into folds when ureter is empty
a. Transitional epithelial lining
b. Basal lamina
c. Lamina propria
i. Dense irregular fibroelastic CT
2. Muscularis
a. upper 2/3 of ureter
i. Outer circular layer
ii. Inner longitudinal layer
b. Lower 1/3 of ureter
i. Outer longitudinal layer (extra layer)
ii. Middle circular layer
iii. Inner longitudinal layer
3. Ureters deliver urine to the urinary bladder via peristaltic waves produced by the muscularis and not by gravitational forces
4. Fibrous CT covering****


Urinary Bladder

1. Mucosa – is thrown into folds when bladder is empty
a. Epithelium
i. Transitional epithelium
b. Lamina Propria
i. Superficial – dense irregular collagenous CT
ii. Deeper – loose layer of CT (collagen and elastic fibers)
2. muscularis
a. 3 layers of smooth muscle
b. middle layer forms the internal sphincter muscle
3. Adventitia
a. Dense irregular collagenous CT
b. Elastic fibers
c. Attaches bladder to surrounding structures
4. Serosa (peritoneum) covers part of the bladder


Urethra female

1> Mucosa
i. Epithelium
a) lined by transitional epithelium near bladder
b) stratified squamous nonkeratinized lines remaining urethra
ii.lamina Propria
a) fibroelastic
b) glands of Littre (mucous)
2> Muscularis (smooth muscle)
i. inner longitudinal layer
ii. outer circular layer
3> External urethral sphincter: skeletal muscle – where the urethra penetrates the UG diaphragm


urethra male

a. Prostatic Urethra – lies within the prostate, transitional epithelium
b. Membranous Urethra – traverses the UG diaphragm
i. lined by stratified columnar epithelium
ii. pseudostratified columnar epithelium in some areas
c. Spongy Urethra (penile urethra) – in the corpus spongiosum
i. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
ii. stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium in the distal end
d. Lamina Propria: loose fibroelastic CT, very vascular, glands of Littre (mucous)


Neoplasia definition

(tumor) – new (abnormal) growth: growth may be benign or malignant. The term cancer is reserved for malignant neoplasms



Oncology definition

study of tumors


Benign tumors use the suffix



benign tumor list

i. Fibroma – benign tumor that is fibrous or developed CT
ii. Chondroma – benign growth of hyaline cartilage
iii. Adenoma – epithelial cell benign tumor; epithelial cells form a glandular structure or are derived from glandular tissue.
iv. Hemangioma – benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels
v. Lymphoma – benign tumor of lymphoid tissue
vi. Papilloma – benign epithelial tumor of the skin or mucous membrane (i.e., mucosa) possessing finger-like projections
vii. Polyp – benign protrusion from a mucous membrane (i.e., mucosa)


Malignant tumors list

i. Sarcoma – tumors derived from derivatives of mesenchymal connective tissue
ii. Carcinoma – tumors derived from epithelial cells
iii. Mesothelioma and melanoma are two examples of several of malignant tumors that do not follow the rule (HAS -OMA ENDING BUT THIS IS FRICKIN DEADLY.. EXCEPTION TO -OMA RULE LIKE MELANOMA AS WELL)


Mixed tumors

Occurs due to divergent differentiation



-Tumor derived from more than one germ layer.
-benign or malignant


Differentiation is

an assessment to which tumor cells resemble comparable normal cells, both structurally and functionally


Anaplasia is

a state where tumor cells lack differentiation
-tripolar spindles during mitosis?


Pleomorphism (anaplasia)

cells and nuclei are variable in size and shape


Abnormal nuclear structure (anaplasia)

– nuclei contain an abundance of DNA and are hyperchromatic; nuclei are also larger than normal with large nucleoli


Mitoses (anaplasia)

large numbers of mitoses are usually found; mitotic spindles are unusual as they may be tripolar, quadripolar, or multipolar


Loss of polarity (anaplasia)

cells lose their normal organization


local invasion benign

grow slowly and are confined to their site of origin. Usually develop a capsule thus forming a plane of separation from normal tissue.


local invasion malignant

not discrete masses as they invade and destroy neighboring tissue. Lack a capsule though slow growing malignant tumors may develop one


pathways of spread

-Direct seeding of cavities or surfaces (malignant or cancer)
-hematogenous spread (liver and lungs)
-perineural invasion and spread (CT around a nerve)



benign-Well differentiated; structure may be typical of tissue of origin

maligannt-Some lack of differentiation – with anaplasia; structure is often atypical



benign-Usually progressive and slow

maligannt-Erratic and may be slow to rapid;
mitotic figures may be numerous and abnormal



benign-Usually cohesive and expansile, well-demarcated masses that do not invade or infiltrate the surrounding normal tissues

maligannt-Locally invasive, infiltrating the surrounding normal tissues;
sometimes may seem cohesive and expansile but with microscopic invasion




maligannt-Frequently present; the larger and less differentiated the primary, the more likely the metastases


top three cancers:



prostate cancer

i. Most common cancer in men; second leading cause of death due to cancer
ii. In 70% of cases the adenocarcinoma arises in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland; usually in the posterior location
iii. Malignant glands are crowded and the cytoplasm of the malignant cells is darkly stained
iv. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate serum acid phosphatase (PSAP) are serum markers of prostate cancer.
v. Cancer-suppressor genes are lost early in carcinogenesis; p53 mutations occur late in the course of the disease***
vi. Loss of E-cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule***
vii. Hematogenous spread to the vertebral column***


breast cancer

i. 50% of breast cancers are found in the upper lateral quadrant
ii. Almost all breast cancers are adenocarcinomas
iii. Breast carcinomas are divided into two broad categories
a. Carcinoma in situ
b. Invasive carcinoma
iv. 70-80% of breast cancers express estrogen receptors
v. Some cancer cells lack E-cadherin; therefore, they appear singly or as loose cell clusters
vi. Some cancer cells overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2)
vii. Mutations of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes occurs in 25% of familial breast cancers


colorectal cancer

-Architecture of colonic adenomas:
a. Pedunculated
b. Sessile –villous type- greater malignant potential


frequency sites of origin for colorectal cancers

-MOST COMMON- cecum and ascending = 38% & sigmoid/rectal = 35%
-traverse and descending = 18%


control of fluid balance

-angiotensinogen converted into renin
-renin into angiotensinogen I
-I converted into angiotensinogen II by ACE enzyme
-constricts arterioles and stim secretion of aldosterone
-increase fluid volume via constriction and uptake of NA and Cl (pulls water in)



its malignant for sureeeee


Lung cancer

i. Most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide
ii. 75% of lung cancers originate from the primary, secondary, or tertiary bronchi
iii. Bronchial epithelium transforms to cancerous cells
iv. Four main categories of lung cancer
a. Squamous cell carcinoma – most commonly found in men and is tightly correlated to SMOKING
b. Adenocarcinoma – most common type of lung cancer in women and nonsmokers
c. Small cell carcinoma – highly malignant - SMOKING
d. Large cell carcinoma – undifferentiated


most malignant lung cancer

small cell carcinoma


two ung cancers related to smoking?

squamous cell and small cell