Test 2 Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 Part 2 Deck (122):
1

CT wrapping of skeletal muscle

endomysium
perimysium
epimysium

2

thin filament

consist primarily of actin protein - G-Actin monomers that assemble to form a polymer - 2 G-actin polymers twist together to form double stranded helix = filamentous actin (F-actin)

F-Actin + troponin complex + tropomysoin alpha helices

3

troponins

TnT- attached to tropomyosin in actin groves
TnC - binds Ca ions
TnI - INHIBITS actin myosin interaction; binds troponin complex to actin molecules

4

tropomyosin

consists of two polypeptide chains that form an alpha-helix. the tropomysoin molecules line up in head to tail arrangement - each tropomyosin molecule rests on 7 G-actin molecules and COVERS their active sites for myosin

5

thick filaments

consist of myosin II protein about 200 quantity - cool.

6

myosin components

2 heavy chains (golf clubs)
4 light chains (flat-ish golf clubs)

7

myosin breakdown with trypsin

2 segments -
1) heavy meromyosin - 4 light, 2 glob heads, short twisted tail
2) light meromyosin - long twisted tail - two chains wrapped around each other in an alpha helix

8

heavy meromyosin break down with papain

TWO S1 moieties (S1 = 2 light chains +1 glob head) and ONE S2 segment (short twisted tail

9

organization of muscle

Overlapping of Thin Filaments + Thick Filaments form a --> Sarcomere --> Long cylindrical series of end-to-end sarcomeres form a--> Myofibril --> many parallel myofibrils are enclosed within a --> Muscle Fiber (Muscle Cell)

10

a-band

dark band - thick and thin fil - widest band

11

H--band

thick only - bisects a-band

12

z-line

attachment for thin filaments, contain alpha actinin= anchor, bisects the I-band

13

m-line

Consists of protein structures lying between thick filaments, holding them in register.
Creatine kinase is the major protein here. Bisects the H-band.

14

titin molecules

accessory protein - anchors thick fil to the Z-disks - 4 to each thick fil

15

alpha actinin

accessory protein - anchors thin fil to Z-disk- component of z-disk

16

nebulin

accessory protein - anchors thin fil to z-disk - 2 nebulins per - NON ELASTIC wrapped around

17

which three proteins create the orderly arrangement of striated muscle

titin, alpha actinin and nebulin

18

myomesin

secures thick filaments in register at the M-line.

19

c-protein

secures thick filaments in register at the M-line. (SAME AS MYOMESIN)

20

dystropin

cytoplasmic protein that binds actin (thin) filaments to laminin (a component of the external lamina surrounding the muscle fiber).

21

endomysium

surrounds each msucle fiber/cell - reticular fibers

22

perimysium

surrounds bundles of many muscle fibers = fascicles - collagenous CT derived from epimmysium

23

epimysium

many fascicles surrounded by this layer = envelopes the gross muscle - send septa within the muscle so that vessels and nerve fibers may reach deeper aspects of the muscles

24

transverse tubules (t-tubules)

invaginations of the cell membrane. Their lumen is continuous with the extracellular space, and contain extracellular fluid. Their function is to carry nerve impulses deep into the cell.at junction of A and I band

25

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

form a sleeve around each myofibril. - CA storage in terminal cisternae

26

Terminal cisternae

part of sarcoplasmic reticulum - store calcium here.

27

triads

1 t-tubule + 2 terminal cisternae of SR - at A-I junction

28

Satellite cells

regenerative cells that lie between the skeletal muscle cell and its external lamina. Following tissue injury they undergo proliferation. New myoblasts are derived from satellite cells.

29

motor end plate

one per muscle fiber/cell - has axon terminal- synaptic cleft - muscle cell sarcolema (post synaptic membrane)

30

Myasthenia Gravis

autoimmune disease causing muscle weakness
Ach receptors are detroyed via antibody-receptor complex

31

Muscular Dystrophy

genetic, degenerative disease, affecting striated muscles
gene for dystrophin is funky on X-chromosme
it is supposed to bind actin filaments

32

cardiac muscle

weakly striated - BRANCHED - contain glycogen deposits - lipid droplets for FA (major E source) - lipofuscin:aging pigment - artial granules: Lower BP by actin on kidney water loss - endomysium for capillaries to each muscle cell, intercallated disks: junctions - `

33

fascia adherens of cardiac muscle

transverse portion - anchor actin filaments of terminal sarcomere to plasma membrane

34

Maculae adherentes of cardiac muscl

transverse portion - spot desmosomes - bind cells together

35

gap junctions of cardiac muscl

lateral portion - for flow of ions SO THAT MUSCLE CONTRACTS AS A SYNCYTIUM!

36

diads in cardiac muscles

one T-tubule and one Sr form Diad a z-disk

37

Purkinje fibers

specialized (modified) cardiac muscle cells, located in the endocardium. have glycogen deposits

relay electrical impulse to cardiac muscle fibers

38

troponin test

blood test that is ordered when a patient complains of chest pain. This is one of several blood tests that will help the physician diagnose a heart attack or if the patient has suffered other heart injury (ranging from mild to severe). elevated troponin levels are a problem.. durp

39

smooth muscle

form sheets and no striations; NO TROPONIN; ONE NUCLEUS; dense bodies form at points of myofilament criss-cross (attachment for thin fil and intermediate fil); NO T-TUBULES; SR NOT WELL DEVELOPED; have caleolae for Ca release;

40

unitary (visceral) smooth muscle

One innervates a few muscle cells - intestines, uterus, ureters - many gap junctions

41

calveolae

pinocytotic vessicles that form bubble-like structures on inner surgace of the cell membrane - release CA

42

multiunit smooth muscle

each muscle fiber has its own nerve supply - sphincter and pupullae muscle

43

Gray matter

consists of nerve cell bodies and neuroglia arranged into 1) cerebral cortex: multiple layers of nerve cell bodies that form a folded sheet on brain surface 2) cerebellar cortex: same as above but dif location 3) nuclei:collections of nerve cell bodies and neuroglia embedded deep within the brain

44

white matter

consists mostly of myelinated nerve cell axons with some unmyelinated axons and neuroglia. Axons may be short = 1 mm and reside within the brain; or may be long = up to 1m. Long axons leave the brain and descend to the spinal cord.

45

neuroglia

support cells in nerve tissue (brain spine etc)

46

collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS=

called a nucleus

47

collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS=

called a ganglion

48

axodendritic/axosomatic

nerve synapse onto a dentrite

49

axoaxonic

nerve synapse onto another nerve synapse

50

electrical synapse

found in brainstem, cerebral cortex, and retina
uses gap junctions - RAPID

51

choroid plexus

located in ventricles of brain.
pia mater w/ simple cuboidal epithelium (ependymal cells-type of neuroglia) held together by tight junctions -zona occludentes.
fenestrated (leaky) capillaries
produces CSF-fills ventricles,central canal of spinal cord and subarachnoid space

52

nerve injury and regeneration occurs where?

in the peripheral nervous system

53

anterograde changes (regeneration)

distal to site of injury - include axonal degeneration and elimination of debris
1) segment of axon distal to injury degenerates (wallerian degeneration)
2)phagocytotic cells derived from schwann cells and monocytes clean up
3) schwann cells proliferate and form tubes with their external lamina

54

retrograde reaction and regeneration

proximal to site of injury
1) cell body swells
2) chromatolysis - nissl bodies move to periphery of soma
3) nucleus moves away from cell center
4) free robosomes formed and protein synthesis
5) axon grows
6) schwann cells guide axon growth toward target cell
7) growing axon grows into endoneurium
Essential for growth: macrophages, fibroblasts, basal lamina, and schwann cells

55

layers of the eye

1)outer-fibrous=corneoscleral coat
2)intermediate-vascular layer=uvea:blood supply, contains chorioid
3)inner-retina:visual aspect - anterior aspect is iris: non visual part

56

corneoscleral coat

outermost layer of eye - has the cornea and the sclera

57

uvea

vascular intermediate coat: has the choriod, cilary body, and iris

58

retinal layer

visual and non visual parts - neural - retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)

59

chambers of the eye

anterior and posterior separated by the lens. the lens is part of the anterior.

60

anterior segment of the anterior eye

infront of the iris

61

posterior segment of the anterior eye

behind the iris

62

contents of the anterior chamber

aqueous humor
iris
cilary body and muscle
lens
cornea
anterior sclera

63

posterior chamber contents

vitreous humor - gel like
visual retina
RPE
posterior sclera
uvea

64

vitreous humor

gel like content of the posterior chamber
gets more fluid like as we age - may detatch retina or something

65

cornea

anterior 1/6 of the eyeball -it is transparent and refractive! need to let light through to the lens
2/3s of the reflractive power
5 layers - 1) corneal epithelium 2)bowmans membran 3) corneal stroma 4) desceents membrane 5) corneal endothelium

66

corneal epithelium

1 -Continuation of the conjunctiva
-Stratified squamous (non-keratinized) epithelium attached via desmosomes
-Mitotic activity is high to replace injured epithelium
-Apex of cells have microvilli to help retain tears secreted, prevents corneal drying
-Cells have ferritin to protect DNA from damage to UV light since melanin is absent
-Innervated by Ophthalmic division of CN V, corneal blink reflex, very sensitive

67

bowmans membrane

2 - Acellular specialized basement membrane
-Does not regenerate
-Terminates at Corneoscleral limbus
-Contributes to strength and stability of cornea
-Acts as a barrier to prevent spread of infections
-If damaged creates an opaque scar, which can impair vision

68

corneal stroma

3 -90% of corneal thickness: A) Collagen fibrils arranged in lamellae. Adjacent lamellae are arranged at right angles to each other, this maintains the transparency of the cornea B) Proteoglycans and Collagen V are responsible for the precise spacing of the collagen fibrils
-Disruption of the lamellar arrangement results in an opaque cornea

69

descemets membrane

4 -Basement membrane of the cornea endothelium (Next layer)
-Regenerates after injury
-Thickens with age
-Interwoven meshwork of fibers and pores
-Helps maintain, through connections with the sclera and ciliary muscle, the normal curvature of the cornea

70

corneal endothelium

5 -Faces the anterior chamber of the eyeball
-Simple squamous epithelium joined by zonula adherens, zonula occludens and desmosomes
-Limited proliferative ability
-Injury results in corneal opacity
-Responsible for virtually all of the metabolic exchanges of the cornea

71

sclera

-posterior 5/6 of the eye - WHITE of the eye
-tough fibrous CT (collagen and elastic fibers) to maintain shape of eye
-Tenon's capsule-fascial sheath over the surface of the sclera in which the extraocular muscles insert
-pierced by the optic nerve, blood vessels, and other nerves

72

corneaoscleral limbus

-contains stem cells for the corneal epithelium
-location of iridocorneal angle- trabecular meshwork, formation of the canal for schlemm (scleral venous sinus), apparatus for the outflow of the aqueous humor

73

uvea

iris, cilary body, and choroid make it up

74

cilary body

make up uvea --area ant to the ora serrata - area that defines the ant limit of the retina of choroid and the posterior limit of the cilary body
-lined by two layer of simple columnar epithelium separated by a basement membrane:INNER LAYER (adjacent to aqueous humor, non pigmented, fluid-transporting epithelium, complex cell-to-cell junctions, well developed zona occludens AND OUTER LAYER (pigmented, rich in melanin, less developed cell-tocell junctions, cilary channels

75

iris

make up uvea -- most anterior portion, pupil, ant and post pigment epithelium, contractile diaphragm in front of the lens:dilator pupillae and phincter pupillae

76

choroid

make up of uvea -- dark-brown (MELANOCYTES) vascular sheet - prevents felection of light waves entering
-lies between the sclera and retina
-choriocapillary layer: inner vascular layer, richer in small fenestrated blood vessels, provides nutrients to retina
-Bruch's membrane (lamina vitrea): thin and amorphous hyaline membrane, innermost layer of the choroid

77

five layers formed from choroid and a retinal layer (bruchs membrane)

1) basal lamina of endothelial cells of choriocapilary layer
2) Collagen fibers
3) Elastic fibers
4) collagen fibers
5) Basal lamina of the retinal epithelial cells

78

dialator pupillae

radially arranged smooth muscle fibers, sympathetic - of the iris - opening pupil

79

sphincter pupillae

circular arranged smooth muscle fibers, parasympathetic - CN III - of the iris - closing pupil

80

non visual part of the retina

ora serrata

81

cilary processes

75 radial ridges that secrete and anchor zonule fibers to lens
produce aqueous humor
blood-aqueous barrier

82

flow of aqueous humor

posterior chamber --> pupil --> anterior chamber --> trabecular meshwork --> canal of schlemm --> venous system

83

cilary muscle

-longitudinal (meridional) fibers stretch choroid
- radial fibers flattern lens= distal vision
- circular fibers reduces tension on lens=near vision

84

open angle glaucoma

angle is open but reabsorption into cnanl of schlemm in to venous system is not happening= increase in pressure - slow onset
trabecular meshwork to canal is preventing flow

85

angle closure glaucoma

angle closed and immediate buildup bc cants get to drainage canal (schlemm)

86

choriocapilary membrane (bruchs membrane

supplies retina with blood

87

retina

---non-photosensitive region - anterior to ora serrata-lines the inner aspect of the cilary body and posterior surface of the iris
---photosensitive region- posterior to ora serrata, pierced by the optic nerve
---optic disk (papilla) - site where optic nerve joins retina - no photo receptors= blind spot
---macula lutea and fovea centralis= only CONES= greatest visual acuity here

88

ora serata

change from non-visual to visual of retina

89

fovea centralis

only contains cones - photoreceptors = point of best visual acuity

1 on 1 relationshp bw cone and bipolar cell

90

RPE

FIRST LAYER -Attached through Bruch’s membrane to the choriocapillary layer of the choroid
-Mechanical separation occurring at this junction = “detached retina”
-pigmented - dark - phagocytic = recycling of rods and cones
-controls what gets sent to retina

91

detached retina

bw RPE and layer of rods and cones

92

rods and cones

conducting neurons. connected to biopolar cells to ganglions and axons of ganglions = optic nerve

apical portion embedded into RPE
rods - DEPOLARIZATIONG MORE NUMEROUS - black white gray - rhodopsin pigment - iodopsin pigment
cones - HYPERPOLARIZATION colors - red blue green - high intensity

93

mullers cells

support cells for rods and cones - packing material - manage metabolites coming to and from rods and cones area

94

Layers of the retina

INNER MOST - 1) Retinal pigment epithelium
2) layer of rods and cones - photoreceptors
3) outer limiting membrane - end of muller cells( anchoring membrane)
4) outer nuclear layer - cell bodeis of rods and cones
5) outer plexiform layer - CONDUCTING LAYER connection to bipolar cells
6) inner nuclear layer - biopolar nuclei
7) inner plexiform layer - bipolars meet the ganglia cells
8) ganglion cell layer - these are the ganglions
9) layer of optic nerve fibers - head to the optic disc to form optic nerve
10) inner limiting membrane -

95

crystalline lens

-biconvex
-focuses light rays on retina
-avascular
-not innervated
3 parts: lens capsule (basal lamina and type IV collagen w/ proteoglycans; subcapsular epithelium (cubiodal layer of cells only on anterior surface of lens (connected by gap junctions and gives rise to lens fibers at the equator);lens fibers (produced throughout life, rate dec with age,has crystallins-lens protein-cells with no organelles or nuclei, cataracts=loss of transparency), fibers stiffen and enlarge with age = presyopia-loss of accomodation)

96

diabetes on eye

glucose gunks up capilaries = bleeds and immune response = swelling, new growth of vessels to make bv which block up cones and rods from light. , cones separate from RPE

97

macular degeneration

multifactorial disease - fovea centralis is damages - central vision affected

98

drusen

yellow pigment - under bruchs membrane macular edema - intra retinal bleeding separates retina from RPE

99

WET AMD

new bv grow in retina

100

DRY AMD

drusen - protein lipid that occurs in aging - breakdown of RPE cells

101

catarcts

oldness of chrystalins - plaques accumulate over life - cloud up

102

vitreous body

pressure of this gel fluid pushes the retina against the RPE and choroid - stagnant not replaced - beomces more watery over time and pressure dexcreases and separation

103

eye lids

tarsal plates - fibrous plates for shape

104

stye of the eye

glands of Zeis infection

105

external ear

cerumen from ceruminous glands (too much = conduction hear loss); tympanic membrane

106

middle ear

tympanic cavity, simple cuboidal, CNIX, mastoid air cells posterior, auditory tube anterior, ossicles (maleus, incus, stapes) with synovial joints, muscles: stapedius m (dulls stapes) and tensor tympani (dulls of maleus)

107

internal ear

membraneous labrynth, series of sacs and tubules suspended in a bony labrynth; endolymph, perilymph, and cortilymph

108

tympanic membrane compostion

outer: simple squamous epithelium (of external auditory epithelium auriculotemporal)
middle: collagen fibers with elastic fibers circularly arranged. Fibroblasts
inner: simple cuboidal (can be squamous) all along tympanic cavity (CNIX)

109

auditory tube

simple cuboidal changes into respiritory epithelium= pseudostratified with goblet cells; equalizes pressure bw middle ear and nasopharynx

110

perilymph

fills tube bone to membrane; high in NA low K

111

endolymph

fills membraneous part inside tube; high K low NA

112

bony labrynth

filled with perilymph; semicircular canals, vertibule and cochlea, series of tunnels within the petrous part of temporal bone

113

creating an electrical signal

hair bundle (sterocillia) - next to kinocilia - in the fluid so as the fluid moves the steroecilia will move toward the kinocilia or away - movement = the electrical potential

114

cristae ampullaris

located in the ampulla of the semicircular duct and canal; toward base of semicircular canal - little swelling;sits perp to longitudianl axis in endolymph; cupula - gelatinous structure that embeds the hair cells at apical portion - if you move it it moves the hair which are connected to the nerve - senses angular, rotational movement of the head

115

macula

speicalized sensory in the utricle and saccule - sits at roof in horiz plane of utricle and verticle plane of saccule - in endolymph - straight side to side or up down movement - gel membrane with bony structures on the gel (otoliths) - Otolithic membrane - they do not move - help with gravity info - movement of gel shifts hairs - uses bipolar cells to move info back vestibular ganglion

116

stria vascularis

produces endolymph- later wall of cochlear duct - next to bone - vascular.

117

basilar membrane

floor of scalia media, holds the organ of corti (special hair cells for sound)
outer hair cells and inner hair cells - hair cells go to tectorial membrane n okinocilium. moves whcih causes the tectorial membrane to shift the movement moves the hair cells. dentrites go to ganglion. deflection bw basilar and tectorial = signal

118

tectorial membrane

gel membrane- colalgen II, V, IX, glycoproteins

119

vestibular membrane

preserves the gradient - tight junctions bw scala vestibuli (perilymph) and scala media (endolymph) . simple squamous

120

phalangeal cells

support for the hair cells - contain cortilymph - help for cotritunnel - cortilymph

121

cortilymph

high in NA low K

122

i-band

thin filaments only. bisected by z-line