Test 3 Flashcards Preview

neuroscience > Test 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (426)
Loading flashcards...
1

Motor Control definition

- Ability to regulate and direct the mechanisms essential to movement
- Study of postures and movements and also the functions of mind and body that govern posture and movement

2

Posture

static position of any body segment

3

Movements

Transition from one posture to another

4

Movement emerges from what?

interaction of individual, task, environment

5

3 constraints of movement

1) individual
2) task
3) environment:

6

Individual:Movement and action

Walking, Running, Talking Smile, Reaching
Study the systems that control action
Degrees of freedom

7

degrees of freedom

how many ways of movement
i.e: flex-ext, abd-add= 2

8

Individual: Movement and perception

-integration of sensory impressions into meaningful info
- adds interpretation and meaning of afferent information

9

Individual: Movement and cognition

attention
planning
problem solving
motivation
emotions
intent

10

Task: Recovery of function

sensory/ perceptual impairments
motor impairments
cognitive impairments

11

Task constraints on movement

Recovery of function
sequence tasks to achieve movement
Functional task groupings
discrete vs. continuous tasks
stability vs. mobility
manipulation components
movement variablity

12

Task: functional task groupings

bed mobility
transfers
ADLs

13

discrete vs. continuous tasks

discrete: def beginning and end
concrete: variable beginning and end

14

discrete tasks

kicking a ball
throwing
striking a match

15

continuous tasks

running
swimming
steering a car

16

stability vs. mobility

-non moving BOS vs moving BOS
- attention demands increase in mobility activities

17

manipulation components

adding manipulation increases task demands
- standing, standing lifting light load, standing lifting heavy load

18

movement variability

open movement: soccer/ tennis
closed movement: confined

19

factors that constrain movement in individual

movement and action
movement and perception
movement and cognition

20

Environmental constraints

regulatory
non-regulatory

21

regulatory constraint

size, shape, weight of cup
type of surface we walk on

22

non regulatory constraint

background noise
presence of distractions

23

Why study motor control

Pts retrain clients to move better
Intervention focuses on teaching typical motor patterns

24

Reflex theory of motor control

-Sir Charles Sherrington- 1906
-Reflexes are building blocks of complex behavior
- reflexes work in sequence to create movement

25

5 reflex theory of motor control limitations

1) Reflexes require external stimulus
2) Some movement occurs without sensory stimuli
3) Some movement occurs too rapidly for sensory feedback to trigger follow up movement
4) Chain theory does not account for need to override reflexes to achieve goal
- withdrawal from hot stove vs. save child from fire
5) Reflex chaining does not allow for production of novel movement

26

Hierarchical theory of motor control

- Brain has higher, middle, and lower levels of control
- Top down control: brain controls everything

27

Hierarchical theory of motor control- Rudolf Magnus

- Found reflexes controlled by lower levels present only when higher cortical levels are damaged
-Reflex testing

28

Hierarchical theory of motor control- Georg Schaltenbrand

- explained development of mobility in children and adults
- appearance and disappearance of hierarchically organized reflexes

29

Hierarchical theory of motor control- Gesell and McGraw

-Maturation of infants
- Normal motor development attributed to increased cortical control over the lower level reflexes
- CNS is primary agent of change in development

30

Cortex postural reflex development

equilibrium reactions

31

cortex motor development

bipedal function

32

midbrain postural reflex development

righting reactions

33

midbrain motor development

quadrupedal functions

34

brainstem and spinal cord postural reflex development

primitive reflex

35

brainstem and spinal cord motor development

apedal function

36

Hierarchical theory of motor control limitations

- Cannot explain the dominance of reflex behavior in certain situations (safety) in normal adults
- withdrawal reflex: stepping on nail; in a top down, the motor response could only be initiated by a higher cortical center not by reflexive lower level pain response
- Bottom up control

37

Clinical implications of hierarchical theory of motor control

- Brunnstrom: Pioneer in early stroke rehab
- Used reflex hierarchical theory to describe disordered movement following motor cortex lesions

- Bobath: Neurodevelopmental treatment

38

Motor programming theory of motor control

Motor programs (CPG's) drive movement without the need for sensory input

39

Central pattern generator (CPG)

- concept emerged when the response was uncoupled from the stimulus
- Sensory input as a stimulus was found NOT to be necessary to initiate a motor pattern
- alteration in movement pattern

40

Rhythmic pattern generator

interrupting afferent input did not cease insects ability to beat their wings

41

Motor programming theories of motor control explore what?

- physiology of actions rather than the physiology of reactions

42

Motor programming theories of motor control may be used to represent what

- neural connections that are stereotyped and hardwired
- or to describe the higher- level motor programs that represent actions in more abstract terms

43

Motor Programming theories of motor control limitations

the same motor program can produce different results depending on the external forces at work
- the same program for elbow flexion would produce different result if arm was extended at shoulder vs. being held at the side. the force of gravity is different in each position and would produce a different result.

44

Motor programming theories of motor control clinical implications

- Allow clinicians to move beyond a reflex explanation for disordered motor control
- Suggests the importance of helping patients relearn the correct rules for action
- Intervention should focus on retraining movements important to a functional task

45

Motor program defined

- Abstract representation of movement sequence that is stored in memory and consists of variant and invariant features
- Higher level hierarchically organized neural processes that store the rules for generating movements

46

Motor program terminology

1) identify CPG
- Represents neural connections that are stereotypical and hardwired
- Neural network that produces rhythmic pattern outputs without sensory feedback : locomotion, respiration, swallowing

2) demonstration of CPGs

3) higher level motor programs that represent actions in more abstract terms

47

Systems theory of motor control

Look at whole body as a mechanical system and integrate all the forces acting on the body to control or influence movement
- DF come into play
-all of varied df in any given movement need to be coordinated in order for movement to be smooth and controlled.
- use synergistic patterns to control movement

48

systems theory is a distributed model of what?

motor control

49

Systems theory-central commands modified by what

the forces acting upon the system

50

Systems theory of motor control - synergies serve to do what?

decrease the redundancy within the system
= decrease the degrees of freedom

51

System theory of motor control- What is the emergent property?

movement

52

Systems theory of motor control limitations

Does not focus as heavily on the interaction of the organism with the environment only the internal influences within the individual

53

Systems theory of motor control clinical implications

- Stresses the importance of understanding the body as a mechanical system
- Examination and intervention must focus not only on impairments within individual systems but the effect of interacting impairments among multiple systems

54

Dynamic Action Theory of motor control

-Movement emerges as a result of elements in the environment as needed
- not as a result of specific commands from the CNS or from premeditated motor programs.

55

Dynamic action theory of motor control is what type of system

Self Organizing:
of individual components interact in an orderly manner to produce emergent behaviors
- Higher centers are not needed
- Loops within the system control activation of motor behavior

56

Dynamic action theory of motor control limitations

relegates CNS to a relatively unimportant role

57

Dynamic action theory of motor control clinical implications

- Movement is an emergent property
- By understanding more about the physical or dynamic properties of the human body, clinicians make use of these properties in helping patients regain motor control

58

Motor program theory of motor control
vs.
Dynamic Systems theory of motor control

Motor Program
-variability of movement is consequence of error in motor performance
- Assumption is that as performance improves the errors have decreased thereby decreasing variability of movement

Dynamic systems theory
- variability is necessary condition of optimal function
- Provides for flexibility, adaptability, adjustment to environmental changes
> too little variability can lead to injury
> too much variability can lead to impaired movement performance (ataxia)

59

What happens to stable patterns of movement when transitioning to a new movement pattern

become unstable
- flex one finger, extend opposite index finger

- variability in movement pattern may be precursor to change in patients

60

humans and equilibrium

- we are far from equilibrium all the time
- this encourages self organization
- learning in this sense involves the de-stabilization of one pattern so that a new pattern of stability may be found

61

When a system is pushed far from equilibrium, what is it seeking?

Stability; it adopts certain patterns which are locally stable
- The water in the pain, when heated, adopted a different pattern; hexagons, then turbulence
- Heat was a control parameter: an outside variable that can push the complex system into different behaviors
- Also an order parameter: maroscopic description of the emergent behavior pattern (hexagon, turbulence)

62

Ecological theory of motor control

We detect information from our environment relevant to action and use that information to control movement
- move in the environment to find food, run from predators, build shelter, etc.
- Perception more important than basic sensation
- being able to short sit in a variety of chairs

63

Ecological theory of motor control limitations

research emphasis has shifted from the nervous system to the organism/ environment interface

64

ecological theory of motor control clinical implications

1) individual is an active explorer of the environment
2) individual can develop multiple ways to accomplish a task
3) adaptability is important

65

order parameter

-macroscopic description of the emergent behavior pattern
- behavior patterns are expressed by order parameters
- it represents some relationship among the component parts of the system
- The relationship changes when the control parameter alters so that the order parameter loses stability
> the pattern always fluctuates due to oscillation of parts
> when the fluctuation reaches a critical point, order is lost and a new pattern may emerge

66

Neurofacilitation

-retraining motor control through techniques designed to facilitate and or inhibit different movement patterns
- Associated with both the reflex and hierarchical theories of motor control

67

Underlying assumptions

- functional skills will automatically return once abnormal movement patterns are inhibited and normal movement patterns facilitated
- repetition of these normal movement patterns will automatically transfer to functional tasks

68

Task- oriented approach

- movement is organized around a behavioral goal and is constrained by the environment
- Patients learn by actively attempting to solve the problems inherent in a functional task rather than repetitively practicing normal patterns of movement

69

Memory

- acquisition of knowledge or ability
- Product of learning process: STM, LTM
- procedural memory

70

STM

working memory

71

degrees of freedom

- number of variables of a system that corresponds to the number of parameters to fully describe the task
- Ideal: the least number of independent coordinates needed to identify the position of an element or variable

72

LTM

evidence of learning

73

strategy

combination of the sensory information from the environment (afferent input) with the synergy (efferent output)

74

synergy

muscles firing in a pattern (to return to equilibrium)

75

Control parameter

- can cause change in the system and a new motor behavior.
- increasing velocity of gait will transition one into a jog then into a run.
- coordinated movement control variables (tempo, speed, force) that freely change according to the characteristics of an action situation

76

Feedback

any form of augmented, post-response information about the achievement of a goal

77

feedforward

process of sending information to the cortex to prime the system and to provide information that may be used in a comparative fashion when a motor activity has been selected

78

Order parameter

- incorporates and characterizes all the systems that cooperate to produce a movement
- functionally specific variables that define the overall behavior of a system
- enable a coordinated pattern of movement to be reproduced and distinguished from other patterns (i.e relative phase)
- also known as collective variables

79

according to the dynamic pattern view of motor control, when a control variable is systematically varied (speed, increased from slow to fast):

- an order parameter may remain stable or changes its stable state characteristic at a certain level of change of the control parameter

80

steady state

homeostasis of system

81

why is motor learning important to clinicians

for retraining the patient with motor control problems

82

Motor learning

-the study of the acquisition and/or modification of movement
- recovery of function refers to reacquisition of movement skills lost through injury

83

Motor learning has been described as a set of processes associated with what?

practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for producing skilled action

84

what kind of changes in behavior does motor learning produce

relatively permanent

85

motor learning is a process of what?

acquiring the capability for skilled action

86

Motor learning results from?

experience or practice

87

Can motor learning be measured directly?

No
- Changes may not be readily observable but inferred from performance improvement as a result of practice

88

Motor learning emerges from a complex system of what?

perception/ cognition/ action processes
- Involves motor processes, learning new strategies for sensing as well as moving

89

Task Solutions

new strategies for perceiving and acting

90

Recovery of function

involves reorganization of both perception and action systems in relation to specific tasks and environments

91

Relating performance and learning

- initial improvement in performance does not necessarily reflect changes in learning
- Retention of those performance improvements reflects learning
- Learning is a relatively permanent change
- Performance is a temporary change in motor behavior seen during practice sessions
- not solely a measure of absolute learning

92

Performance

a temporary change in motor behavior seen during practice sessions
- not solely a measure of absolute learning

93

Forms of learning

-recovery of function following injury involves the reacquisition of complex tasks
- simple forms of learning are the basis for the acquisition of skilled behavior

94

Declarative memory (explicit)

involves association of information related to people or things, places, and meaning of these bits of information

95

Much of motor learning is what type of memory?

nondeclarative (impicit)

96

2 subtypes of nondeclarative learning
- each controlled by different parts of the brain

1) Non associative
- habituation
- sensitization
*both reflex pathways
2) Associative
- classical conditioning
- operant conditioning

97

Nonassociative forms of learning involve what kind of pathways?

reflex

98

Habituation

decreased responsiveness that occurs as a result of repeated exposure to a nonpainful stimulus

99

sensitization

increased responsiveness following a threatening or noxious stimulus

100

Through associative learning, a person learns to predict what?

relationships

101

Classical conditioning

consists of learning to pair 2 stimuli
- initially weak stimulus (conditioned stimulus) becomes highly effective in producing a response when it becomes associated with another stronger stimulus (unconditioned stimulus)

102

operant or instrumental conditioning

-trial and error learning
-instrumental conditioning
-associate response with consequence
-behaviors that are rewarded tend to be repeated at cost of other behaviors
-behaviors followed by aversive results are usually not repeated
-"law of effect"

103

Classical conditioning example

-conditioned stimulus (ringing bell)
-unconditioned stimulus (food) always produces a response (drooling)
-Repeatedly pairing the 2 stimuli produces a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus

104

Classical conditioning in therapy

- give verbal cue with physical assistance
- over time reduce physical assistance keeping verbal cue
- over time reduce verbal cue until patient has learned skill

105

Declarative or Explicit Learning

- learning occurs in the medial temporal lobe areas and hippocampus
- requires processes such as awareness, attention, and reflection
- learning info related to people or things, places, and meaning of these
- "first I button the top button, than the next one"
- "nose over toes"

106

Law of effect

frail elderly person falls at grocery store
- less likely to repeat going to store
- becomes less active
- physical function declines
- increases likelihood of falling
- reinforce desire for inactivity
- on and on

107

Adam's Closed Loop Theory of motor learning

Sensory feedback aids in learning the skill to perform it better on subsequent trial.s
- comparing the stored memory of intended movement

-2 types of memory important
1) Memory trace
2) perceptual trace

108

Adam's Closed Loop theory:
Memory trace

used in the selection and initiation of movement (initiates movement)

109

Adam's Closed Loop Theory:
Perceptual trace

knowledge of the correct or successful movement. learned with practice
detects error in movements and corrects.

110

Therapeutic implications for law of effect

- therapists can use intervention to reduce likelihood of falling
- Desensitization- reduce anxiety and fear
- use of praise to reinforce good performance

111

Adam's closed loop theory limitations

Cannot explain loop movements made in absence of sensory feedback

- It may be impossible for the brain to store a separate perceptual trace for every movement ever performed

- Variability in movement practice may actually improve motor performance of the task

112

Schmidt's Schema Theory of Motor Learning

- How motor programs are learned
- novel movement is completed, we store:
1) initial movement conditions (position of body, etc)
2) parameters used in the motor program
3) outcome of movement (KR)
4) sensory consequences of the movement (how it felt, looked, sounded)
-information stored in recall/motor schema, and recognition/sensory schema
-Feedback and KR continually adapt the motor and sensory schema to adapt the motor program

113

Procedural learning

- Learning tasks that can be performed automatically without attention or conscious thought: HABIT
- Develops slowly through repetition of an act over many trials
- Learning occurs in the striatum of the basal ganglia

114

Schmidt's Schema Theory clinical implications

- by practicing specific motor tasks under varied conditions, motor learning will be enhanced
- Learning consists of the ongoing process of updating the recognition and recall schemas with each movement made

115

Declarative learning involves 4 different types of processing

1) encoding
2) consolidation
3) storage
4) retrieval

116

Ecological Theory of motor learning

- concept of search strategies
- during practice there is a search for the optimal strategy for completing the task
- includes perception and action

117

Adam's Closed Loop Theory Clinical implications

- it is essential to have the patient practice the same exact movement repeatedly, to one accurate end point
- The more time spent practicing the movement as accurately as possible, the better the learning will be
- Errors produced during learning increase the strength of an incorrect perceptual trace

118

Ecological theory limitations

- has not been applied to specific examples of motor skill acquisition

119

Theories related to stages of learning motor skills do what

- focus on motor learning from a temporal perspective
- attempt to more carefully characterize the learning process

120

Fitts and Posner 3 stage model

1) cognitive stage (early): what to do, reach for glass, spill many times
2) associative stage (intermediate): how to do
less spilling movement to reduce degrees of freedom allowing more joints to be involved in the task
3) Autonomous stage (final): how to succeed
reach for glass while carrying on a conversation without spilling

121

recall schema

same movement performed many times with varied force output- developing the memory to choose correct response

122

Schmidt's Schema limitations

- lack of specificity of interaction with other systems during motor learning
- Inability to account for the immediate acquisition of new types of coordination

123

Ecological theory clinical implications

the patient learns to distinguish the relevant perceptual cues important to organizing action

124

Systems 3 stage model

1) Novice: simplify task, reduced df
2) advanced: release some df
3) expert: releases all DF needed for task, task performed in most efficient way

125

Gentile's 2 stage model

1) develop understanding of task dynamics
2) fixation/ diversification
- refine movement
- adapting movement
- perform task consistently and efficiently

126

Fitts and Posner: Cognitive stage

Learner:
- develops understanding of the task
- determines what to do by cognitive mapping
- progresses: clumsy to organized
- relies on visually guided movement

Benefits most from/ facilitators
-Constant, blocked and whole practice
- precise and frequent feedback

127

Fitts and Posner: Associative Stage

Learner:
-determines a strategy
- practice the strategy
- makes necessary adjustments
- works on how to do
- Spatial and temporal aspects creates coordinated pattern
- refinement of skills: decreased errors; increased consistency, decreased reliance on conscious attention

Facilitators:
- precise feedback
- decreased frequency necessary

128

Fitts and Posner: Autonomous Stage

Learner:
- practice and refines movement
- works on how to succeed
- performs equally well on closed/ stable and open/changing
- spatial and temporal aspects are highly organized
- move with increased autonomy and decreased cognitive monitoring of task

129

Stages of motor program formation

hierarchical changes may occur in movement control as motor programs are assembled during the learning of a new task

130

Practical applications of motor learning research

different motor learning factors are important to consider when retraining patients with motor control problems

131

Practice levels

- most important factor in retraining motor skills
- rate of improvement during any part of practice is linearly related (on a log scale) to the amount left to improve

132

intrinsic feedback

inherent
information from sensory systems received during or after a movement

133

extrinsic feedback

augmented
- supplemental information from external source
- concurrent: given during the task
- terminal: given at completion of task

134

Types of feedback

knowledge of results (KR)
knowledge of performance (KP)

135

KP examples

your elbow was bent
that punch was a little too slow
your tuck was not tight enough
your backswing was too long
your step was too short
you did not lift your knees high enough

136

Feedback provision: transitional

information provided to improve subsequent performance

137

faded

- giving more feedback early then fading out
- studies show this type of timing provided more retention over time

138

delayed

feedback given after a period of time has elapsed following completion of trials

139

concurrent

feedback provided as tasks are being performed

140

Massed practice

time spent in practice greater than time resting between
fatigue

141

distributed practice

rest periods scheduled throughout session
may be better in cases of:
- decreased motivation
- decreased attention span
- patient with motor planning deficit

142

constant practice

one task performed repeatedly over an over again

143

variable practice

practice of several variations of the same task or category of movement(s)

144

Task order

1) blocked practice: predictable pattern- repeat same task
2) serial practice: predictable order of repetition of sequence of tasks
3) random practice: non-repeating, non-predictable sequence of tasks

145

Guidance vs. discovery learning

- learner is physically guided through the task to be learned
- guidance should be used only at the outset of teaching a task

146

recovery of function

the reacquisition of movement skills lost through injury

147

effect of age

the brain reacts differently to injury at different stages of development

148

characteristics of lesion

- fairly strong relationship between injury severity and long-term functional outcomes
- considerable variability in recovery even among individuals with sever brain injury

149

pre-injury neuroprotective factors

exercise
environemental enrichment
dietary restriction

150

post injury neuroprotective factors

effect of pharmacology
neurotrophic factors
effect of exercise and training

151

intrinsic feedback

inherent
information from sensory systems received during or after a movement

152

extrinsic feedback

augmented
- supplemental information from external source
- concurrent: given during the task
- terminal: given at completion of task

153

Types of feedback

knowledge of results (KR)
knowledge of performance (KP)

154

KR

- knowledge of the outcome of the task
- focus on success of outcome
- terminal feedback about the outcome of the movement, in terms of the movement's goal
- information that tells learners something about the success of their actions
- provides temporary effects on the subject's ability to perform a task
- number of trials to complete before giving KR varies depending on task

155

Dynamic systems theories

- ecological approach
- Berstein, Thelen, Horak, Heriza, Shumway-Cook and Woollacott
- Nonlinear development influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors
- emphasizes process rather than product
- genetics, nutrition, ethnicity, prenatal care, socioeconomics, trauma
- all systems work together with varying degrees of influence on behavior
- developmental change not a series of discrete stages but a series of states (stability, instability)

156

KR examples

you buttoned that button in less than 5 sec

you were 2 meters off target that time

you missed the ball

157

KP examples

your elbow was bent
that punch was a little too slow
your tuck was not tight enough
your backswing was too long
your step was too short
you did not lift your knees high enough

158

Feedback provision: transitional

information provided to improve subsequent performance

159

feedback provision: manual guidance

provided during a task or movement while providing intervention
- increases performance
- decreases learning
- decreases retention

*ultimately want patients to own the movements
* we can't go home with them and it's tiring to be hands on all of the time

160

feedback provision: observation

observe others through modeling, peers, videos; may also be self- assessment
- increases performance
- increases learning
- decreases errors

161

Feedback timing

bandwidth
summary
faded
delayed
concurrent

162

bandwidth

- feedback is provided only when the performance of tasks falls outside of set parameters
- small errors are not corrected

163

summary

- feedback provided at the end of a set number of trials
- study has shown this to be the best form for long term retention

164

faded

- giving more feedback early then fading out
- studies show this type of timing provided more retention over time

165

concurrent

feedback provided as tasks are being performed

166

Practice schedules

session length
practice type
task order
type of task

167

practice conditions

massed vs distributed practice (session length)

constant vs variable practice (session type)

Random vs blocked practice: contextual interference
- task order

168

Massed practice

time spent in practice greater than time resting between
fatigue

169

distributed practice

rest periods scheduled throughout session
may be better in cases of:
- decreased motivation
- decreased attention span
- patient with motor planning deficit

170

constant practice

one task performed repeatedly over an over again

171

Task order

1) blocked practice: predictable pattern- repeat same task
2) serial practice: predictable order of repetition of sequence of tasks
3) random practice: non-repeating, non-predictable sequence of tasks

172

Whole vs. part training

- components of a task defined in relationship to the goals of the task
- components must be practiced within the overall context of the task
- effective if task can be naturally divided into units that reflect inherent goals
- if you can do the task in 2 different environments, you've learned it

173

Transfer

- amount of transfer depends on similarity between 2 tasks or 2 environments
- critical aspect is similarity of neural processing demands in the 2 situations

174

mental practice

- mental practice is an effective way to enhance learning during times when physical practice is not possible
- neural circuits underlying the motor programs for the movements are usually triggered during mental practice

175

Guidance vs. discovery learning

- learner is physically guided through the task to be learned
- guidance should be used only at the outset of teaching a task

176

recovery of function

the reacquisition of movement skills lost through injury

177

Concepts related to recovery of function

function
recovery
recovery vs compensation
sparing of function
stages of recovery

178

factors affecting recovery of function

endogenous (within the individual) factors
exogenous (external to the individual) factors
preinjury factors
postinjury factors

179

effect of age

the brain reacts differently to injury at different stages of development

180

characteristics of lesion

- fairly strong relationship between injury severity and long-term functional outcomes
- considerable variability in recovery even among individuals with sever brain injury

181

typical vs. normal

normal- varies from one individual to the next
typical- more accurately describes the developmental sequence

182

developmental theories of motor development

neural- maturational
cognitive/behavioral
dynamic systems

183

Birth to 1 month FINE MOTOR

-strong grasp reflex
-holds hands in loosely fisted posture
-visually attends to faces and black and white geometrical designs
- closer to the end of one month, may still be blurry, recognize people

184

Behavioral theories of motor development

-pavlov, skinner, bandura, piaget
- modification of behavior as result of specific environmental stimulus reinforcing the behavior ( + or -)
- examples: quiet room
- creeping hands and feet example

185

Spontaneous movements/ reflexes

building blocks of development
- spontaneous movements
- primitive reflexes
- postural reactions
-locomotor reflexes

186

spontaneous movements

- do not result from specific stimulus
-nonspecific and generalized movement
- thelen studied spontaneous kicking in infants
- noted rhythmical not random pattern
- ankle, knee, and hip moved cooperatively with each other
- resembled timing of adult step
- central pattern generators: innate ability to take steps
- kicks similar not identical; not enough strength to stand
- increased variability of timing
- joints move in unison rather than sequentially
- cocontraction exists in infant kicking
- adult gait alternate flexion and extension
- by end of 1st year see increased flex/ext

187

primitive reflexes

- up to 70 have been described
- some controversy over use of term primitive; can repress or work around them
- during early infancy these reflexes are important for survival
- responses to external stimuli and specific and localized
- same stimulus elicits same response; startle, arms extend and come back
- Rooting, sucking, withdrawal, moro, grasp, babinski, ATNR, STNR

188

ATNR

asymmetric tonic neck reflex
extension on face side, flexion on skull side, yawn in adults

189

STNR

symmetric tonic neck reflex
flexion and extension of upper and lowers

190

Postural reactions

- try to stay upright always
- help infant automatically maintain posture in a changing environment
- labrynthine righting (vestibular system)
- optical righting
- pull up
- parachute
- propping
- neck righting
- body righting

191

Locomotor reflexes

stepping
swimming
crawling

192

Role of reflexes in development

- 3 explanations exist
- Prenatal explanations
- structural: wiring
- functional: survival; fetal positioning for birth
- postnatal explanations: applied
- role of reflexes in volitional movement

193

Role of reflexes: Mcgraw

reflexes needed to be inhibited by the CNS before infant could move voluntarily

194

Role of reflexes: zelazo et al

found reflexes and voluntary movement related
- elicit stepping reflex daily for 8 weeks
- increased stepping reflex exhibited
- earlier onset of walking
- elicit stepping reflex by rubbing dorsum of foot on surface and step would come--> strengthening leg by lifting against gravity, will walk earlier

195

Role of reflexes: Thelen

change constraints, change integration of reflex
- increased weight of limbs without increased muscle strength reason for integration of reflex: do not move limb so no increased strength
- 4-6 week old infants added weight to limbs and noted decrease of stepping reflex
- older infants in chest deep water- reflex increased in frequency
- 7 month old infants without reflex stepping did take steps on treadmill
- differing constraints (rather than maturation) can account for integration of reflexes
- reflex disappears due to increased strength; also we overprotect our young

196

influences on human development

- internal- heredity/genetics
- external- environmental, experiences, culture
- maturation
- normative vs. nonnormative

197

Culture and development

- a system of learned patterns of behaviors
- socialization process
- shared by others
- ability to interact
- ethnicity
- race
- some cultures push children to mature faster in motor and cogntion

198

environmental/ cultural influences on motor development

- cultural/ ethnic beliefs, traditions, and practices
- maternal handling: postural adjustment/ control, antibacterial, age of mom and dad
- maternal expectations
- socioeconomic variations in parenting style
- childrearing/ childcaring practices: survival, discipline, value placed on childrearing
- use of baby equipment
- nutrition
- home environment

199

Socialization aspect of motor development

- social learning
- socialization: critical for motor development
- motor experiences are vital to full development of skills
- helps to learn motor skills and increase proficiency

200

Social and personality development

gender typing
cultural influences
moral development
family and peer issues

201

socializing agents

family members
peers
teachers
coaches

202

social situations

urban vs. rural
gender- typing
toys

203

personal attributes

perceived ability
self esteem
motivation
persistence

204

socialization in youth sports

non school sports
increased number of children involved
stereotypical behavior-gender

205

Stages of prenatal/postnatal development

germinal period: 0-2 wks
embryonic pd: 2-8wks
fetal period: 8-40 wks
infant: birth-2yrs
child: 2yrs-adolescence
adolescent: transition to maturity

206

embryonic period

-lasts 6 wks
-organogenesis occurs: defining of cells
-3 weeks: cells differentiate into ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

207

endoderm

digestive/ respiratory systems

208

mesoderm

muscles
skeleton
circulatory system
reproductive system
dermis

209

ectoderm

CNS
PNS
eyes
ears
outer skin

210

summary of embryonic development

by end of 8 weeks embryo is distinctly human in appearance
head more round and erect but still large
neck established
eyelids more obvious
auricles of ears begin to take shape

211

birth to 1 month

-flexion of knees and elbows
-cannot extend because they were just in mommies belly
-flexion contractures
-cannot get head arms or legs to midline because of low strength: frog leg position
-physiological flexion and limited ROM
-active movt limited by available ROM
-movements are random and total in pattern (all flex or all ext)
-no graded motor control

212

Birth to one month GROSS MOTOR (prone)

- physiologic flexion dominates
- baby keeps head turned to the side
- head preference is typical
- head and neck extension begin to emerge (antigravity activation)
- brings mouth to hand
- UE adducted/flexed with shoulders elevated to the ears
- LE flexed with elevated pelvis with weight shifted to face
- weight bearing on face, head tilting is difficult
- weight shift over time

213

Birth to 1 month GROSS MOTOR (supine)

- head turned to one side
- use gross swiping motions of UE (not much antigravity)
- kicking patterns of LE range from rhythmical and reciprocal to random and variable

214

Birth to 1 month GROSS MOTOR (sitting)

- requires full support to sit
- fully rounded back, flexed neck, poor active control of head (head bobbing)
- pull to sit: marked head lag, minimal UE traction noted

215

Birth to 1 month GROSS MOTOR (upright)

- requires full support at upper trunk
- head bob in and out of vertical
- visually tracks horizontal and vertical in very small ranges
- positive support reaction: accepts weight briefly on lower extremities
- automatic stepping seen

216

Birth to 1 month FINE MOTOR

-strong grasp reflex
-holds hands in loosely fisted posture
-visually attends to faces and black and white geometrical designs
- closer to the end of one month, may still be blurry, recognize people

217

Birth to 1 month ORAL MOTOR/ LANGUAGE

- cries characterized by sudden pitch changes
- vegetative sounds (burping and feeding)
- sounds are vowel like
- sounds are produced primarily on exhalation

218

2 months

gravity can take hold of extremities
period dominated by general hypotonia
overall decreased flexion
increased extension
asymmetry
baby appears to have less control of the body

219

2 months GROSS MOTOR (prone)

- UE have increased external rotation and abduction with elbows remaining behind the shoulders
- hips are more extended with pelvis moving closer to surface
- weights shift caudally to shoulders
- lifts head to 45 degrees asymmetrically by end of this month
- head lifting and activation may be motivated more by visual righting

220

2 months GROSS MOTOR (supine)

- UE held in increased external rotation and abduction (gravity assisted)
- LE have increased extension as physiologic flexion reduces
- head rarely held in midline due to influence of the ATNR

221

2 months GROSS MOTOR (supported sitting)

- continued head lag in pull to sit- baby now begins to initiate neck flexion
- Can hold head erect briefly, continues to bob head

222

2 months GROSS MOTOR (upright)

- baby is unable to hold weight on legs
- less control than at one mont
- astasia-abasia exists
- astasia: disorientation in standing
- abasia: lack of stepping

223

2 months FINE MOTOR

- baby can swipe with hands; upper extremities work as one
- hands are slightly fisted with thumbs out
- involuntary release present

224

2 months ORAL MOTOR/ LANGUAGE

- increased vowel sounds
- emerging consonant sounds including n,b,d,g,t,k
- cooing begins
- differentiated cries for pain, hunger, and discomfort
- localizes to sounds
- socially smiles

225

2 months REFLEXES/REACTIONS

- labrynthine righting reaction (12mo +)
- hold infant vertically at chest
- tilt child ant.,post., lat.
- head orients to vertical position and steady
-Body righting on body (12mo +)
- flex on LE rotate across pelvis
- infant will turn body segmentally
- body righting on head (7mo)

226

3 months

- beginning of symmetry
- bilateral control of neck musculature: allow them to be on stomach, playing, eye contact, interactions
- antigravity flexor control emerges
- midline orientation of head emerges
- increased alertness/ awareness of environment

227

3 months GROSS MOTOR (supine)

- able to bring UE to midline on chest
- Hold LE with soles of feet together (frog leg)

228

3 months GROSS MOTOR (prone)

- pushes head up to 90 degrees and turns freely initiating weight shift
- ability to turn head on forearms allows for initiation of subtle weight shift
- UE have increased horizontal abd/add which supports forearm weight bearing
- LE are positioned with pelvis to surface and wide base (frog leg)
- weight shift, balance, crawling

229

3 months GROSS MOTOR (supported sitting)

- increased flexion control in pull to sit
- visual attention to hands, cognitive what do my hands do, neural connections made
- head held up, trunk leans forward with scapular retraction present

230

3 months FINE MOTOR

- hands together at midline in supine
- hands held loosely fisted
- begins to visually attend to objects

231

3 months ORAL MOTOR/ LANGUAGE

- responds to angry/ harsh vocal tones by crying
- responds to pleasant tones by cooing
- laughs out loud

232

four months

- where the fun begins
- strong symmetry
- bilateral control of extensor and flexor muscles; leads to increased control
- head control much improved
- emergence of controlled purposeful movement

233

four months gross motor prone

- increasing antigravity control emerging
- increased extension through back and neck
- can hold head in midline with neck elongation emerging- reduction in neck hyperextension
- see forearm WB pushing up on extended arms; bears weight on palms
- increased lumbar extension and anterior pelvic tilt with legs more in line with trunk
- weight bearing more into the pelvis
- swimming movements emerge

234

four months gross motor supine

- increased balance of flexors/extensors
- increasing midline position of hands
- emerging ability to reach for knees
- active hip and knee flexion
- emerging abdominal control, decreased hip abduction

235

four months gross motor sitting

- baby pulls to sit with increased symmetry
- increased abdominal and LE activity
- more straightening of the back, arms forward in ring sitting

236

four months fine motor

- hands to mouth regularly
- hands to knee in supine
- increased elbow extension with reaching, squeezing, and grasping
- fine hand control remains undeveloped

237

four months oral motor/ language

- consistently produces combination consonant vowel combinations
- emergent babbling
- blows raspberries, smacks lips, snorting
- yelling, squealing, low pitched growls
- consonant sounds include m, p, l,v,f
- responds to noise and sound by turning to the source

238

five months gross motor prone

- begin to see equilibrium reactions
- bears weight on extended arms
- weight shifts on propped forearms
- pivot prone
- rolls to supine

239

five months gross motor supine

- baby can bring feet to mouth
- baby has increased weight shifting
- increased weight shifting leads to increased proprioceptive feedback

240

five months gross motor sitting

- pulls to sit with active abdominals and arm assisting with pulling
- increased active back extension, forward leaning at hips versus back in ring sit
- abducted hips provide stability
- may sit alone for brief periods

241

five months gross motor upright

takes almost full weight in hand held sitting

242

five months fine motor

- spontaneous dropping of objects
- both arms approaching midline
- palmar grasp
- reaches to familiar people
- retains small object in each hand

243

five months oral motor/language

- begins to sense inflection and intensity when spoken to
- responds to pleasant speech by smiling and laughing
- uses babbling to get attention to make requests
- gives vocal expression of eagerness
- vocalizes displeasure

244

five months reflexes and reactions

-parachute (12 mo): held above surface in ventral suspension. infant extends arms to protect fall

-Landau (12mo+): support infant horizontally in air in prone position, head extends back, hip extend in sequence

245

six months gross motor prone

-shifts weight on extended arms
- unilateral reaching seen in close to ground prone postures

246

six months gross motor supine

- lifts head from surface independently
- rolls supine to prone with dissociation of LE

247

six months gross motor sitting

- pulls to sit, initiating the action with arms while tucking head and flexing legs
- arms are free for play and protective extension
- good sagittal plane trunk control (anteriorly)
- poor transverse plane trunk control

248

six months gross motor upright

- takes full weight with assist at hands and bounces

249

six months fine motor

- overreaches for objects, excessive finger extension
- radial palmar grasp
- rakes small tiny objects
- reaches unilaterally for objects
- bangs objects on surfaces
- transfers objects from hand to hand

250

six months oral motor/language

- increases awareness and response to environment
- can say several syllables
- reduplicated/ repetitive babbling

251

seven months gross motor prone

- attains quadruped, abdomen off floor, initiates rocking (increase proprioception)
- brief crawling (commando)

252

seven months gross motor supine

- child spends very little time in supine by this age
- more interested in the other postures and readying self for increased mobility

253

seven months gross motor sitting

- can assume sit from the quadruped position
- trunk rotation present in sitting position
- transitions sitting to prone

254

seven months gross motor upright

- pulls self to stand against stable surfaces
- falls back into sitting: no controlled lowering ability

255

seven months fine motor

- inferior scissor grasp for small objects
- drops one object when grasping another
- releases objects from hands with assist from a surface

256

seven months oral motor/language

- sings tones
- begins to use patterns of inflection
- uses sounds in random vocalizations

257

eight months gross motor prone

- creeps on hands and knees (all fours crawling)
- may crawl backwards at first because of more UE strength

258

eight months gross motor sitting

less fixing with the LE

259

eight months gross motor upright

- pulls to stand thru kneel or 1/2 kneel
- cruises on support surface
- stands with one hand held
- stepping gait with both hands held

260

eight months fine motor

- radial digital grasp with wrist extension
- uses hands to throw, drop, and push/pull
- clumsy release above surfaces
- bangs 2 cubes held in hands
- uses mature scissor grasp for small objects

261

eight months oral motor/language

- responds to specific people in specific ways
- understands no
- understands own name

262

nine months gross motor sitting

- sitting is the most functional and versatile position at this stage
- protective extension backwards emerges

263

nine months gross motor upright

- can semi turn in standing
- 2 hand held walking with decreased BOS

264

nine months fine motor

- pokes with index finger
- inferior pincer grasp: emerging finger thumb opposition
- controlled release with straight wrist

265

nine months oral motor/language

responds to bye bye
echolalia begins

266

ten months gross motor sitting

- begins to use UE for more intricate fine motor activities
- results in increased stabilizing (fixing) of LE

267

ten months gross motor upright

- can lower self from standing to sit
- in 2 hand held walking, start to develop pelvic rotation and LE stride

268

ten months fine motor

- wrist extends on approach to object
- places large objects between thumb and 2 fingers
- finger thumb opposition on pads
- clumsy release into small container
- controlled release into large container

269

ten months language

shakes head yes and no to some questions
first word appears 10-12mos

270

eleven months gross motor sitting

- varied LE position
- controlled trunk rotation
- uses 1/2 kneel and kneel more

271

eleven months gross motor standing

-transitions stand to squat while holding on
- stands alone with wide BOS and LE abduction
- cruising is refined to reaching away from surface is seen

272

eleven months fine motor

- uses both hands freely, may show a preference for one
-puts objects in container

273

eleven months language

- follows simple instructions
- attempts to name objects when asked

274

twelve months gross motor

- can stand from the floor through quadruped without using hands at supporting surface
- able to weight shift and lift one leg from the surface
- may attempt ambulation with high guard UE and wide BOS in LE
- may be able to move in and out of squat

275

twelve months fine motor

- holds crayon in palm and marks paper
- forearm supination emerges
- has neat pincer grasp at fingertips
- combines objects: attempts to stack items but is generally unsuccessful
- rolls balls
-scoops with spoon
- finger feeds

276

twelve months oral motor/language

-5 to 6 word vocabulary
- tries to repeat sounds
- use intonation and jargon speech
- directs sounds and gestures to objects and people

277

12- 15 months gross motor

- stands independently
- squats to retrieve objects and returns to standing
- transitions from floor to standing
- walks independently
- ambulation characterized by short stride length, wide BOS, UE in high guard
- creeps up stairs

278

12-15 months fine motor

- precise controlled release of objects into small containers with wrist extension
- can hold 2 cubes in same hand
- can build a 2-3 cube tower
- throws objects to floor
- flings ball with elbow extension

279

12-15 months language

- actively explores the ways in which a new object can be used
- hands objects back to person for repetition of activity
- produces chains of sounds with varied consonant vowel combinations
- speech development plateaus as the child is mastering ambulation

280

15-18 months gross motor

- carries objects while walking
- creeps down steps backwards
- places foot on ball stationary on ground
- attempts to walk up steps using railing
- BOS narrows while walking
- reduces to mid guard position of arms
- can take a few steps backward
- rolls ball
- running emerges: poorly coordinated
- throws large ball overhead using 2 hands
- hurls a tennis ball with ext.
- climbs in and out of chairs

281

15-18 months fine motor

- turns multiple pages of books at once
- scribbles
- crayon held in fist with thumb up
- can build 3-4 block towers
- removes pegs from board and attempts replacement

282

15-18 months language skills

- gives objects to others for interaction
- imitates new sound patterns and simple new words
- vocabulary of approximately 5 words
- classifies objects by shape, function, or action

283

18-24 months gross motor

- stands on one foot momentarily
- steps over low barriers
- ascends stairs with step-to (marking time) pattern and unilateral hand hold assist, railing, or wall
- both speed and fluidity of running increasing: can run 10ft
- attempts to jump from lowest step
- kicks playground ball 3 ft with minimal deviation
- attempts to negotiate 2 inch wide balance beam on level surface
- jumps down from 8-10in
- jumps vertically 2 in

284

18-24 months fine motor

- can build a 5-6 cube tower
- places small pellet into bottle
- separates pop beads
- imitates motor activities

285

18-24 months language skills

- receptive language greater than expressive language
- primitive grammatical system emerges
- hear frequent repetition of words and syllables
- uses nouns, very few verbs, and minimal adult pronouns
- 20-100 word vocabulary
- names objects in books

286

24-36 month gross motor

- stand on one foot for 1-3 seconds
- walks five steps on tiptoes
- walks backwards 10 ft
- jumps down from 16-20in
- descends stairs with rail, marks time
- ascends stairs alternating pattern
- pedals tricycle

287

24-36 month fine motor

- builds 6-7 block tower
- turns pages of book one at a time
- turns doorknobs
- imitates straight, horizontal, and circular marks with marker
- emerging tripod grip
- can string large beads
- rolls clay into snake shape
- cuts paper with scissors
- opens and closes jars
- buttons large buttons
- completes 12-15 piece puzzles
- folds paper or clothes

288

24-36 month language

- rapid increase in language- up to 4 new words daily
- frustrated when not understood
- 2-3 word phrases emerge
- can say full name
- can recite simple nursery rhymes
- begin to hear information and inflection in speech
- has 250 word vocabulary

289

3-4 years gross motor

- stands on 1 foot 5 sec
- hops on one foot, few steps
- uses a slide
- steers and pedals a tricycle
- catches ball
- descends stairs with alternate pattern
- skipping emerges
- jumps over 1-2 inch hurdle
- jumps forward several times in succession
- walks on a line 10ft
- running speed increase and can avoid obstacles

290

3-4 years fine motor

-controls crayon more effectively
- copies circles and crosses
- matches colors
- cuts with scissors
- draws recognizable human figure with head and 2 extremities
- draws squares
- puts together simple puzzles
- builds tower of 9 blocks or more
- may demonstrate hand preference

291

3-4 years language

- acquires adult syntax and grammar
- has versatility of language
- can be controlled by language
- laughs and sighs
- uses typical loudness and tone
- 900 word vocabulary
- uses language in imaginative play

292

5-8 years gross motor

- skips on alternate feet
- gallops with either lead
- plays hopscotch
- balances on one foot
- squats on single leg
- jumps rope with rhythm
- bounces large ball
- kicks ball with greater control

293

5-8 yrs fine motor

- hand preference is evident
- prints well starting to learn cursive writing
- able to button small buttons

294

5-8 years language

- increasing sophistication and comprehension of language
- increased speech and social interaction
- vocabulary up to 4000 words
- uses plurals, pronouns, tenses correctly

295

9-12 years gross motor

- see increased mature patterns of movement in throwing, jumping, and running
- enjoys more competitive games
- improving balance, coordination, endurance, and attention

296

9-12 yrs fine motor

- greater control in hand usage
- learns to draw
- handwriting is developed

297

development of upright posture

a) reflex stepping: flexed posture, elicited stepping
b) static phase: can maintain supported upright posture
c) transition: can stand in position- no progression
d) deliberate stepping: attempts to step with hands held
e) independent stepping
f) heel-toe progression
g) maturity of erect locomotion: developed by age 3-4 yrs

298

stages of locomotor development (11)

- early stepping
- rolling
- crawling
- creeping
- cruising
- upright ambulation
-running
- jumping
- hopping
- galloping
- skipping

299

early stepping

- reflexive at birth through one month
- is locomotion hard wired?

300

Rolling

- prone to supine or supine to prone
- able to initiate due to the influence of righting reactions in infancy
- earliest rolling occurs in utero
- rolling occurs in four phases

301

4 phases of rolling

1) newborn phase
2) spinal extension
3) automatic rolling
4) deliberation

302

Rolling- newborn phase

- predominant flexion posture
- rolling, if occurs, spontaneous

303

rolling- spinal extension

- movement from sidelying to supine (1-2 mos)
- sidelying to prone (4-5mos)
- rolling without segmentation (log roll)

304

rolling- automatic

from 4-8 mos of age
segmental rotation of the body
initiated by UE, followed by trunk and LE

305

Crawling

- certain motor milestones must be achieved to allow for crawling to occur
- adolph (1997) suggests that the environment must afford the infant a surface that allows appropriate weight shifts

306

creeping

all fours, quadruped, belly off surface
- need core strength, elbow strength, wrist strength

307

upright ambulation

- will my child walk?
- measure of social independence and acceptance
- 9-15mos (8-17 mos)
- mature pattern by age 3 1/2
- typically independent by 1 year
- early walking characterized by: steps independent of one another
- short steps minimal leg/hip ext
- flat feet, out toeing (increases BOS)
- everted heels
- no trunk rotation
- high guard

308

refinement of gait: 9-15 mos

- stands with wide BOS
- hips abd, flex, ext rotate
- tibia in mild internal torsion and varus
- CoM closer to head and upper trunk
- High body fat- muscle weakness, muscles must work in antigravity position. functional weakness in hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors
- BoS wide- structural and stability
- increased hip and knee flexion
- full foot initial contact in plantar flexion
- short stride, increased cadence
- relative footdrop in swing phase
- mediolateral stability is achieved

309

refinement of gait 18-24 months

- 18 mos: limb is straight, tibiofemoral angle is resolved
- decrease in BoS: secondary to decrease in abduction, improved stability, dynamic balance and strength, increased AP movement
- prolonged stance phase and decreased cadence
- CoM descends to prox end of legs
- heel strike develpps

310

Refinement of gait 3-3.5 years

- mature patterns
- tibiofemoral angle: valgus alignment
- decreasing femoral antetorsion of the hip
- CoM closer to extremities
- consistent heel strike with knee flexion

311

refinement of gait 6-7 years

- fully mature gait pattern
- tibiofemoral angle returns to neutral
- femoral antetorsion is resolved
- heel position is neutral
- CoM level of 3rd lumbar vertebra

312

aging effects on gait

- walking speed slower
- decreased arm swing
- reduced pelvic rotation
- decreased hip and knee rotation
- increased stride width

313

Stairclimbing/ stairwalking

- stereotypical reciprocal alternating movements of lower limbs

314

phases of stairclimbing

1) ascent: stance phase, weight acceptance, pull-up, forward continuance
2) swing phase: foot clearance and foot placement
3) descent: achieved through eccentric contraction of the same muscles work to control the body with respect to the force of gravity

315

Types of stairclimbing/ stair walking

marking time/ step to
ascending vs descending
adult stairclimbing- alternate foot pattern

316

running

similar LE movements as those seen in walking
mature running characterized by a period of "flight"

317

Running at 18 mos

early running
modified walking
limited ROM
stride length is short

318

running at 2-3 years

smoother stride and run

319

running at 4-5 years

improvement in power and form

320

running at 5-6 years

advance to level of adult manner
can effectively use running skills in play

321

running at 6 years to adult

refining running

age does not guarantee perfect running

322

jumping

- fundamental movement that occurs when the body is projected into the air by force generated in one or both legs and the body lands on one or both feet
- momentary periods occur during which the child is not supported moving from a higher to lower level

323

jumping progression

- early: learn to step off a higher surface from one foot to the other
- jumping off the floor with 2 ft
- progressively jumps from higher levels with both feet
- later jumping skills: forward jumps, long jump (3yrs), jumps over objects

by school age, can perform jumping skills

324

types of jumping

step down from a higher level
one foot jump down
two footed jump
long jump

325

hopping

- complicated version of the jump
- elevation of the body from the ground by 1 ft and the successful landing on the same foot
- early hopping: ineffective, momentarily lifts the support leg by flexing
- static balance: 1 ft, 29mos
- 3 or older become proficient hoppers
- 6 yrs mastered hopping

326

galloping

first asymmetric gait pattern in child
seen 20 months after 1st step
by age 4, 43% of children can gallop
by age 6.5, most children proficient

327

early galloping

done with stiff UE- usually held in high guard
stride is short
lands with flat foot
minimal trunk rotation
tailing limb land ahead of lead limb

328

advanced galloping

more rhythmic and relaxed
arms in low guard
arms swing rhythmically with LE
increased trunk rotation- facilitates the reciprocal movements

329

ecological theory of motor control suggests what

the nervous system function is a perception acting system and not simply a sensory motor system

330

chair example for ecological theory of motor control

an individual who has difficulty rising to standing from a short chair will enter a room with a choice of seating options and choose the higher chair.
- they have perceived that the higher chair will be easier to get into and out of and will choose to interact with their environment in this way.

331

example of closed loop theory

memory trace initiates reaching for a glass on the table. as the arm moves toward the glass the perceptual trace corrects the path of the arm and allows for accurate grasping of the glass

332

limitations to systems 3 stage model of motor learning

not many studies have been conducted at the autonomous or expert levels as it would take months to complete and be cost prohibitive

333

fixation

closed skill
minimal environmental variability
sit to stand from standard chair

334

diversification

open skills
changing environmental conditions require movement diversification

335

Neonate supine lying and pull to sitting

physiological flexion
full head lag, pull to sit
feet in air, no contact with surface
posterior pelvic tilt

336

life span

maximum survival potential of a particular species

337

oldest old

age 85+
fastest growing segment of the population
between 1960-1994, increased 274%
1994, 3 million or 1% of total population
by 2050, 19 million or 5% of total population

338

variables affecting life span development

- biological: heredity, health (nutrition, pollution,etc.), anything physical
- psychological: cognitive, emotional, behavioral, personality (temperament), and variables derived from those
- sociocultural: social and cultural environment, ethnicity, religious beliefs and practices
- life cycle: interaction of all the above with each life stage of each individual

339

Aging

all changes occurring with the passage of time
growth
development
degeneration

340

senescence

degeneration that occurs after the age of peak functional efficiency

341

lead cause of death from 18-34

accidents
homicides
suicides
AIDS

342

leading cause of death after 55

senescence related: cancer, stroke, diabetes, heart and lung disease

343

middle age

40-59
old age is 60 and older

344

Do all organ systems degenerate at the same rate?

no
some changes not evident except under stress

345

prenatal period

conception to birth

346

infancy

birth to 18-24 months of age

347

early childhood

end of infancy to age 5

348

middle and late childhood

6-11 years

349

adolescence

child hood to adulthood

350

early adulthood

late teens through thirties

351

middle adulthood

starts 35-45 and ends 55-65

352

late adulthood

begins in 60's until death

353

adolescence

turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings
- puberty: period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation
- androgens: males, testosterone
- estrogens: females

354

Growth spurts ages

boys: 12.5
girls: 10

dramatic increase in height and weight

355

body proportions in adolescence

boys: shoulders broaden, longer legs
girls: hips broaden

356

muscle fat make up in adolescence

boys: gain more muscle mass (54% body mass) and aerobic efficiency
girls: gain more fat

357

sleep habits in adolescence

sleep needs decline
- 10 hours in middle childhood
- 7.5-8 hours in adolescence

Go to bed later: biological changes, social habits

Daytime sleepiness: achievement, mood problems, more sleep disruption

358

primary sexual characteristics

maturation of reproductive organs
girls- menarche
boys- spermache

359

secondary sexual characteristics

breasts
growth of pubic hair
voice changes
altered skin texture

360

psychological and emotional reactions to puberty

reactions to menarche and spermarche vary
- preparation is key

adolescent moodiness

parent child conflict

361

Early maturing in boys

popular
confident
independent
positive body images

362

early maturing in girls

unpopular
withdrawn
low confidence
negative body image
more deviant behaviro

363

late maturing in boys

unpopular
anxious and talkative
attention seeking
negative body image

364

late maturing in girls

popular
sociable
lively
positive body image

365

aging of skeletal system

- bone remodels throughout lifespan
- early development: bone formed faster than resorbed
- in adulthood, bone formation slows and does not keep pace with resorption
- results in loss of bone tissue beginning early 20's with average loss of 1% per year
- bone composition changes:
- children have = organic and inorganic compounds
- older adults have 7x more inorganic components
- bones become brittle and susceptible to microfractures
- osteoporosis: 2-3% bone mass loss per year
- can lead to hip fractures
- vertebral microfractures

366

factors affecting bone loss

- hormone level: decreasing levels of estrogen in postmenopausal women implicated in bone loss because estrogen stimulates osteoblastic activity
- diet: deficiency of calcium
- exercise: increases bone formation

367

aging of muscular system

- bone composition changes in early adulthood
- lean body weight decreases with increase of fat weight
- 10% of skeletal muscle mass lost between ages 25 and 50 because of changes in diet and exercise
- additional 30% mass lost between ages 50-80
- number and diameter of muscle fibers decreases
5% lost by age 50
35% lost after age 50

368

cardiac muscle changes with age

in elderly, heart's ability to adapt to increased workload decreases
- degeneration of heart muscle
- decrease in elasticity
- changes in fibers of heart valves

Most changes in heart muscle due to lifestyle changes and the resulting pathology

369

nervous system development

rapid growth reflective of:
-increasing size of neurons
- increased branching as synapses formed
- increase in glia and myelin
Development affected by extrinsic factors
- poor nutrition could stunt growth
- injury to left cerebral cortex could cause impaired language development

370

What part of nervous system are more developed at birth

spinal cord and lower brain centers
- those responsible for vital tasks such as respiration and food intake mature

371

weight of brain at birth and 4 yrs old

25% of adult weight at birth
at age 4, 80% of adult weight

372

with initiation of intentional movements what occurs in nervous system development

- cortical areas mature: reaching at 4-5 months

373

PET scan studies of frontal cortex

5 days old: little activity
11 wks: increased activity
7-8 months: adult activity levels

374

spinal cord at birth

small, short
marked increase myelination at 2-3wks post birth
myelination occurs through age 2-3

375

myelination timing may explain developmental timing

- cervical portion first, followed progressively by lower portions
- first in motor horns then in sensory horns
- away from brain in motor tracts
- toward brain in sensory tracts

376

Nervous system and aging

- decrease in:
neurons
dendrites
synapses
neurotransmitters
myelin
- motor response to stimuli decreases: older active adults not as much
- motor coordination, intellectual function and STM suffer the most
- ANS is less efficient at regulating body temperature and BP

377

cerebral and neuronal atrophy

from age 35 on, 100,000 brain cells die every day (not replaced)
- brain weight 50% less by age 75
- cortex thinner, gyri narrower, fewer synapses and neuroglia, less neurotransmitters and receptors
- degeneration of myelin slows down signal conduction

378

Aging of integumentary system

- wrinkles and sagging skin: wrinkles are obvious sign of aging, occurs when our deeper layers of skin lose their elasticity
- hair: turns gray because less number of active pigment producing cells
- balding more common in males, occurs when testosterone acts with genes to promote baldness

379

When does aging of integumentary system become noticeable

late 40's

380

intrinsic aging of integumentary system

gray, thinning, dry hair
paper thin, loose skin that sags
skin that bruises easily and heals slowly
hypothermia in cold weather and heat stroke in hot
- atrophy of cutaneous vessels, sweat glands, and subcutaneous fat

381

photoaging

degeneration in proportion to UV exposure- skin spots, skin cancer, wrinkling

382

adipose tissue development

- adipose accounts for 1.1lb of body weight at birth
- rapid increase in fat tissue first 6mos of life
- mass then gradually increases until age 8
- girls see more dramatic increase through adolescence than boys
- adult females average 31lb fat weight
- adult males average 22lb fat weight
- childhood- visceral fat increases faster than subcutaneous fat

383

subcutaneous fat

decreases until age 7
increases from age 7-13
girls: increase through midadolescence in trunk and limbs (legs>arms)
boys add more subcutaneous fat to trunk more than to limbs

384

adipose tissue development in adulthood

- both sexes gain weight in adulthood most likely due to changes in nutrition and activity levels
- average body fat gains b/t 20 and 50 yrs
- male: 18 lb, female: 26lb
-total body weight declines after age 50
- loss of bone, muscle, increase fat

385

Body fat redistribution with age

- males have decreased limb fat and increased trunk and internal fat surrounding organs
- females subcutaneous fat stabilizes at age 45 with increasing internal body fat continuing
- difficulty exists in identifying typical distribution of adipose tissue as subjects tend to be skewed toward thinner adults
- weight gain not inevitable

386

Vision and age

- as people reach middle age, vision impairs
- as we age, changes in various parts of the eye reduce the ability to receive visual stimulation
- older people need more light to perceive depth and to see clearly

387

hearing and age

- begins to decline in middle ages
- normal loss of hearing is termed presbycusis. hard to hear high pitched sounds

388

smelling and taste with age

-loss of taste caused by degeneration of the taste buds by a change in the way the brain perceives the information from the taste buds

389

touch and temperature with age

-with aging, lose some ability to regulate heating and cooling
- have problems staying warm because of the loss of fatty tissue beneath the skin that helps insulate the body

390

aging of female reproductive system

- women go through menopause as their climacteric change
- leads to end of monthly menstrual flow, cessation of ovulation, decline in the production of the female hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

391

the aging male

there is no male menopause
men may father children all the way through their 70's and 80's

392

aging of the heart

muscle atrophy
reduction of amt of blood pumped with each contraction

393

blood vessel changes with age

decreased elasticity
BP increases

394

hypertension and heart attacks

HTN occurs when arteries are clogged and no longer elastic
HTN leading to a heart attack is called hypertensive cardiovascular disease

395

factors contributing to HTN

genetics
environment
stress
smoking
obesity
lack of exercise
low SES

396

aging and cardiovascular system

-diminished HR
-CO maintained by adaptive mechanisms such as cardiac dilatation and greater SV
- isolated cardiac muscle appears to suffer little age dependent change in function
- progressive rise in basal systolic BP, possibly due to a loss of compliance of the aorta and major arteries with age

397

Non modifiable aspects of aging

arterial wall rigidity
cataract formation
graying of hair
kidney reserve
thinning of hair
elasticity of skin

398

modifiable aspects of aging

glu tolerance
intelligence tests
memory
osteoporosis
physical endurance
physical strength
pulmonary reserve
reaction time
serum cholesterol
social ability
skin aging
elevated BP
cardiac reserve
dental decay

399

prehension

ability to use hands and UE effectively

400

primary components of prehension

visual regard
reach (approach)
grasp
manipulation
release

401

stabilization

trunk and UE require varied degrees of stabilization to afford us the ability to reach and grasp object

402

visual regard

- visual attention on the object
- visual regard and perception: KEY ROLES
- visual regard:
accommodation (focus)
convergence: observe location of object
- visual perception
-eye- head- trunk coordination

403

visual perception

ability to use visual information to recognize, recall, discriminate and understand what we see

404

approach (reaching)

- directing or adjusting of the hand towards an object
- integrates perceptual anticipation with motor preparation
- visual- motor control; eye hand coordination
- hand is major interface with the external world
- hand is transported to the scene of the action by reaching
- involves all segments of the upper limb
- arm and hand function as a single coordinated unit

405

postural adjustments to reaching

- depends on support conditions
- arm plays a stabilizing and supportive role when balance is at risk
- hand can be used to form new BOS

406

Reaching

- arm length- involves upper limb
- beyond arms length movement of the trunk at the hips
- reaching to grasp an object transportation, slower manipulation
- vision initially important followed by tactile and proprioceptive input

407

pre reaching

birth to 4 months
excited thrashing of the limbs
no correction of reach once initiated

408

visually guided reaching

4-8 months
increased use of vision to guide hands
make corrections as they reach

409

visually elicited reaching

9+ months
no longer needs to see hand to guide reach
infant shapes hand correctly for the object

410

development of grasp

- we use any of a variety of grip patterns to secure objects
- location, size, and shape of object determine type used
power
precision

411

power grip

- forcible activities of the fingers and thumb that act against the palm to transmit a force to an object
cylindrical
spherical
hook

412

precision grip

- pinch/ pincer grips
- forces are directed between the thumb and fingers without contacting the palm
pad to pad prehension
tip to tip prehension
pad to side (lateral) prehension

413

opposition

movement by which the pad surface of the thumb is placed diametrically opposite the terminal pad of one or all digits
- thumb contributes 40-70% of total hand function

414

other digits

- index finger second most important
- index finger accounts for 20% of lateral pinch, 20% power grip (supinated), 50% power grip (pronated)
- middle finger is longest and strongest
- index and long finger's prehensile digits: most anatomically stable
- small and ring finger most mobile and weakest

415

reflexive grasp

traction response
grasp reflex

416

transitional reactions

orienting response
instinctive grasp

417

purposeful grasp

squeeze grasp--> palmar grasp
radial palmar grasp --> radial digital grasp

418

development of grasp phases

reflexive
transitional
purposeful

419

catching

goal is to retain possession of object that is caught
hands only is much better than use of body

420

development of catching

child must learn to catch with hands and give with ball
master ability to move left or right, forward or back to catch ball
point fingers up when catching high
point fingers down for catching low

421

throwing

ability to project an object accurately and with sufficient force through space
- 6 mos crude, unrefined
- 2 yrs immature, stiff, jerky

422

ball bouncing

fundamental movement used in a number of child and adult games

423

striking

propulsion skill
an object or body part used to project an object

424

early sidearm striking

chopping motion (elbow extension)
little leg and trunk movement

425

proficient sidearm striking

- sideways preparatory stance and a long step
-differentiated trunk rotation
- horizontal swing through large ROM, with arm extended before contact
- sequential movements

426

skipping

step hop step hop
14% of children can skip by age 4