Flashcards in Test #3 Deck (404)
What is a grain?
Also known as caryopsis, are dry single-seeded, indehiscent fruits.
The member poaceae has what type of family and what type of fruit?
It is a monocot family and have grains for their fruits.
Why is poaceae important?
It is the most important family that provides staple food not only for humans but also animals.
What is cereal?
It is an edible grain of certain grasses. It is also the number one food source for humans.
Describe grass plants
It is mostly herbaceous, with round stems, conspicuous nodes, and hollow internodes.
What are “Culms"?
They are major branches of the stems and are usually hollow at the intermodal region.
What type of root system does grasses have?
Grasses have a fibrous root system and adventitious roots that arise from lower nodes also frequently support them.
What does perennial grasses have?
They have stolons or rhizomes that help the grass spread through vegetative propagation.
What are lodicules?
What is a pale?
It is an inner bract surrounding surrounding the entire incomplete floret.
What is a lemma?
It is an outer bract surrounding surrounding the entire incomplete floret.
What does the tip of the lemma do?
It can extend into a long, sharp awn that helps in dispersal.
What is bran?
It is a structure in which the pericarp and seed coat fuse together.
What is the germ in the seed?
It is a small embryo inside the seed
What makes up the bulk of the seed?
A well developed endosperm makes up the bulk of the seed.
What isa scutellum?
It is the grass embryo which consists of a single cotyledon.
attached to an embryonic shoot with a coleoptile and a coleorhiza.
What does the the coleoptile form?
It forms a shoot.
What does a coleorhiza form?
It forms a root.
What is the endosperm mostly made of?
It is mostly made of starch, as in rice, sometimes with a little protein like in wheat.
What is the aleurone layer?
It is a layer surrounding the endosperm inside the bran.
What is the aleurone layer made of?
This layer is rich in protein and fats.
What does the aleurone layer do?
It aids the embryo during the germination process by breaking down the starchy endosperm into simple sugars.
What was an original problem farmers had with cereal grasses?
The problem was called "lodging" and made harvesting nearly impossible even with machinery.
What is lodging?
Lodging is a term for crops that would fall over and become tangled due to heavy rains and strong winds.
What is shattering?
It is a natural process in grass plants that allows dispersal of the mature fruit further away from the parent plant.
What is threshing?
It is the process of removing the edible grain for human consumption.
What is winnowing?
It is a process of removing the dry broken chaff mixed with the grains after the completion of threshing.
What is a whole grain?
It is everything in a grain except the chaff and lodicules.
It includes bran, the endosperm, and the embryo, thus making it a healthy staple.
What is a polished grain? (AKA: pearling)
It is when the aleurone layer and the embryo gets removed, resulting in a white refined grain.