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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (103):
1

what are the backgrounds for the reformation

muslim army threat, papal power waned, humanism, churchs worldliness, interest in bible/early church, influence of augustine, sense of crisis

2

what is humanism

recorvery of the classical world of greece and rome in art and learning

3

where did humanism occur

italy 15th century

4

who is desiderius erasmus

dutch renaissane humanist, catholic priest

5

why is DE important

published greek test of the NT, empahsis on right living and deeds, purged away physicality of christian devotion

6

who is martin luther

monk of augustinian order, criticized the indulgence system, condemned for heresy in 1520

7

what was martin luther question of salvation

its a gift from god freely given by god to be received by faith

8

what are the three treatises

to the christian nobility of german nation- church reform
babylonian captivity- sacraments from 7 to 3
freedom of the christians- passive righteousness

9

who did luther marry and what did they both oppose

katharina von bara, both opposed celibacy and monasteries

10

true or false luther endorsed sola scriptura

true

11

where did the name protestant come from

protestatio

12

who is zwingli

more radical than luther, preached directly from bible in zurich

13

what did zwingli believe

questioned veneration of saints, purgatory, images, vestaments, and music

14

true or false zwingli rejected transubstantiation

true

15

what legacy did zwingli leave for later protestants

strict scripturalism, suspicion of idolatry, preference for spirit over matter, against eucharistic real presence

16

radical reformation believed it possible to restore what

prinitive model of christianity

17

anabaptists are also known as

belivers baptism

18

what did anabaptist belive

infant baptism lacked scriptural warrant, chrurch must be voluntary true believers, discipline must be maintained, separation of church and state, never swear an oath

19

what group came out of the fall of the anabaptists

mennonites by menno simons

20

who is john calvin

led religious reform in geneva, wrote institutes of christian religion

21

what did calvin believe

he believed all scripture was authoritative, in the unity of the Bible the idea of predestination, four fold ministry that included a pastor teacher elder and deacon, in Geneva as a model of Christian common walk

22

fourfold ministry

pastor, teacher, elder, deacon

23

calvin was what (3)

systematic, logical, scriptural

24

double destination

god chose who he wished to save and chose who he wished to condemn

25

what started englands reformation

king henrys marriage

26

events in englands reformation (5)

king henrys marriage, act of restraint of appeals, break from rome, no changes in practice and doctrine, thomas cranmer and book of common prayer

27

what is the act of restraint of appeals

it forbade all appeals to rome

28

after break from rome who became head of church in england

king henry

29

what are the 7 sacraments

baptism, confirmation, eucharist, reconciliation, marriage, holy orders, and anointing of the sick

30

what are the 5 points of calvinism

total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistable grace, perseverance of the saints

31

what society what the new combative spirit againts the protestants

jesuits

32

Who was Ignatius

He was the Spanish soldier who founded the Jesuits

33

What did the Jesuits believe

Ia vow of poverty and service to others, no daily prayers or canonical office but internalized piety, hierarchy and discipline, and a special vowel of loyalty to the papacy

34

Who wrote the spiritual exercises

ignatius

35

what did ignatius believe was the goal of the spiritual exercise

empower activity in the world

36

what did ignatius focus on

images of scripture

37

what did the council of trent do

Defined official Catholic teachings more explicitly, solo scriptura was rejected, and the church as the true interpreter of scripture, apocrypha was fully canonical, the seven sacraments were reaffirmed, justification by faith rejected, faith formed by love asserted, clerical celibacy and dress code was reaffirmed, bishop authority strengthened

38

Reinvigoration of letting Catholicism

inquisiton, teres of avila, trained parish clergy, baroque style, revived roman catholicism

39

who is teresa avila

soanish carmelite nun who emphasized christocentric piety, mystical experience (piercing heart, marriage with divine), and established discalced carmelites

40

what is the baroque style

solidity and mass, use of color and picture, constratsed gothic style

41

catholic protestant conflict in holy roman empire

peace of augsburg, jesuits eduactional institutions and reforming movement in the church, reformed church not in peace of augsburg so no legal status

42

what is the peace of augsburg

allowed holy roman local rulers to choose lutheranism or catholicism, each dominion folloe religion of rulers, could emigrate to new regions

43

catholic protestant conflict in france

huguenots arose, french wars of religion between catholics and huguenotes, edict of nantes that granted huguenots religious and political freedom

44

st bartholonew day massacre

catholics killed 5-10 thousand huguenots

45

king edward with thomas cranmer

established book of common prayer, clerica marriage made legal

46

mary 1

latin liturgy resumed, papal authority restored, monastic house established, persecution of protestants

47

elizabeth 1

elizabethan compromise, liturgy of cranmer modified, excommunicated by pope, puritianism grew out of this

48

what is the elizabethan compromise

combined protestant theology with traditional practices

49

puritanism

called for church to be reformed and purified

50

what is defenestration of prague

people thrown out of windows

51

thirty year war

between imperial catholic forces and protestant union, no divine triumph, resulted in peace of westphalia

52

what is peace of westphalia

ended thirty years war, cemented nation state, autonomy of states, recognized that europe would be divided by religion

53

synod of dort

ariminiams emphasis on free will (against predestination), international reformed community reaffirmed predestination, movement from calvinism to arminianism in england after dort

54

english civil war

between anglicans (royalists) and puritans by cromwell, charles executed, became commonwealth of england, went back to elizabethan compromise after cromwell death, puritans expelled from the church

55

reinternationalization of christianity characteristics

16-17th centuries brutal civil war, planted churches on all continents except for austrailia, all from western churches, connected with imperial expansion of european power

56

who did most missionary endeavors come from

spain and portuagal

57

padroado system

spanish and portuguese monarchs complete control of the churches in their colonial empires

58

church of ethipoia

close connections to coptic church, isolated, distinctive christianity, sabbatarianism, diet laws, reverance for ark

59

islamic jihad did what in ethiopia

destroyed churches, monasteries, and manuscripts

60

christianity in india

mission led by jesuit francis xavier, adiminstered sacraments, translated apostles creed and ten commandments, and taught youth

61

what was xaviers biggest obstacle in india

the caste system

62

japanese christianity

started by political turmoil, led by xavier who had social and political connections with eaders like oda nobunga

63

japan had an interest in ___,___, and ___ with portuguese

tech, learning, and trade

64

what caused japan to isolate itself

hideyoshis persecution and the spanish franciscan mission that led to a antiforeign reaction

65

chinas christinaity

led by jesuit matteo ricci

66

matteo ricci was studied _____ and did _____ to help appease the chinese

theology, math, astronomy, wore clothes of buddhist monk and confucain scholar

67

what was ricci belief on christianity and confucianism

that they can work together because not that different

68

rites controversy

cominicans and franciscians accused jesuits of compromising true belief
-tianzu and shangdi (names of god)
-confucain ceremonies

69

spanish missions in the west

church was central part of imperial policy, god gold glory

70

who is bartolome de las casas

defender of native americans, separate geological areas called doctrinas that protected natives

71

english colonies in north america were what

haven for various reformed traditions

72

where was the elizabethan compromise in north america

southern colonies, carolinas, and georgia

73

where did the puritans settle in north america

colonies of new england up north

74

non separatists puritans believed what

eschatological belief

75

old england

house of lords, bishops and churches administering justice

76

new england

lay governors exercising authority in christian way

77

roger williams

argued for religious tolerance, founded first american baptist church

78

william penn

founded pennsylvania for religious freedom, most ethnically and religiouslly diverse colony

79

what does philadelphia mean

city fo brotherly love

80

who rejected the edict of nantes

louis xiv

81

what did louis xiv do or belive

against quietism, rejected edict of nantes, encouraged gallicanism

82

gallicansim

general councils over pope authority

83

jesuits emphasized what

humand freedom and responsibility in the work of salvation

84

jansenists emphasized what

power of god and the sinfulness of humanity

85

describe enlightenment

reason is primary source of authority and legitimacy, liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, to end abuses of church and state, revolutions

86

what is bacons method

the world is rational and orderly, a regular law and plan governed the universe, profound parallel between humand and divine reason

87

who is john locke

enlightenment thinker, philosopher, physician

88

beliefs of john locke

against appeal to absolutism, argued for religious tolerance, senses are surer guide than church

89

natural theology

prove gods existence and define gods nature through an appeal to the natural world

90

5 principles of true religion

god, obligation to worship a god, ethical law associated with a god, repent, final reward

91

religion of reason stated what

revelation is unnecessary and christian claims were to be defended by reason

92

deism

revelation is unnecessary, nothing contrary to reason can be held true, reason is necessary guide to knowledge, rejects trinity, deity of christ, resurrection, original sin, atonement, miracles, and eternal punishment

93

pietism in europe

reviatlizing interior life stressing the transforming power of gods love, use of small groups, use of alcohol questioned, mission, practical christianity

94

pia desideria

failure of current christianity and a way toward reform

95

moravians were a ___ between continental pietism and england

conduit

96

john wesley

founded methodism, small groups at pxford, emphasis on activity in the world and on the transformed heart, bleived in free will(arminianism), humans have power to triumph over the sin

97

cristicism of wesley and methodism

god communicating directly seemed dubious and dangerous, field preaching and lay preaching are problematic

98

what was the great awakening in america

18th century, influence of rational religion

99

frontier revival

large number of conversions, jonathan edwards

100

george whitefield

empahsis on new borth, baptism, lamented lack of piety among havard and yale and clergies

101

the message of heartfelt religion created what in the south

a crisis, heartfelt vs hierarchically ordered society

102

_____ of the slave community

evangelizatiob

103

rationalists and evangelicals united to overturn what

established anglican churches of the south