Flashcards in Test 3 - Cellular And Molecular Genetics Deck (16):
What is a gene?
Region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic, usually corresponding to a single protein or RNA.
What is the most common form of DNA?
-DNA wrapped around histones
—DNA in nucleosome form is called chromatin
*In general, DNA is organized into chromosomes
How many chromosomes do humans have?
2 sex chromosomes
What is a LINE?
What is a SINE?
LINE - Long interspersed nuclear elements
SINE - Short interspersed nuclear elements
What are the different stages of the cell cycle?
-G0 - Majority of cell life and function
-G1 - Cell organelles duplicated
-S - Chromosomes duplicated
-G2 - Cell double checks chromosomes
-Prophase - Chromosomes condense
-Prometaphase - Kinetochore microtubules formed and breakdown of nuclear envelope
-Metaphase - Line up in middle
-Anaphase - Pull apart
-Telophase - Start separation process, chromosomes decondense
Cytokinesis - Cell splits via a contractile ring of actin and myosin filaments that pinches the cell
DNA replication is __________.
What part of the cell cycle does that occur in?
DNA must be synthesized in what direction?
And at what?
5’ to 3’
What does DNA polymerase do?
Polymerizes new DNA strands
What does topoisomerase do?
Places nicks in the DNA to relax coils
What does DNA primase do?
Creates RNA primers on the lagging strand
What does DNA helicase do?
Unwinds the DNA
-Into a leading strand and lagging strand
What primary DNA polymerase creates strands?
4 most common types of DNA damage?
Double strand break
What increases genetic diversity and by what processes?
Recombination is directed by what?
-DS - Recombinase DNA Merging
-SS - Hollday Junctions