Test 3 - Lecture 3 ( Posture, Balance, Vol Movement ) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 3 - Lecture 3 ( Posture, Balance, Vol Movement ) Deck (25)
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1

Relative orientation of the head, trunk, & limbs

Posture

2

Capability to maintain a stable posture

Balance

3

The resistance of a muscle to stretch by external loads, reflecting the overall stiffness of the muscle arising from active force generation

Muscle tone

4

A point that represents the average position of the body's total mass; the net effect of gravity upon the body is through ...

Center of mass

5

The ground, or platform upon which we make contact to which the gravitational force, acting through the body's center of mass, is applied...

Base of support

6

Pulling forces, established through muscle activation, to counteract external forces that would otherwise pushy the body off balance

Force vectors

7

Loss of balance may occur whenever postural ______ is lost

Equilibrium

8

Displacement of the center of mass away from its center of balance relative to the current stance

Sway
(Forward - anteriorly)
(Backward - posteriorly)

9

To counter act, the muscles closest to the origin of displacement are activated ...

First

10

Compensatory muscle activation continues progressively moving away from the origin of displacement to...

Stabilize & brace

11

An active compensatory response triggered by a disturbance to postural equilibrium

Reflex

12

Counteracting forces no longer off-set displacement forces, causing loss of balance if not quickly restored

Disturbances to equilibrium

13

Particular motor reflexes originate from neural networks where

Brainstem & spinal cord

14

Learned preparatory state that may be executed in advance of a stimulus

Postural set

15

Feed forward signaling is ...

Anticipatory (awareness of current body position & of intended movement generates adjustments in muscle tone in advance of voluntary movement)

16

Feed back signaling is ...

Compensatory (to maintain posture during movements & when external forces are varying)

17

Feed - _____ responses are stereotyped & can be improved through learning & practice

Feed back responses

18

Report changes in orientation and balance via changes in the length & tension of specific muscles

Proprioceptors
(Twice as fast as vestibular & visual responses)

19

Report head motion

Vestibular receptors

20

Report motion relative to external objects in the visual field

Visual input

21

Respond to changes in length & tension along muscles & tendons

Proprioceptors

22

Changes in orientation within the gravitational field

Vestibular

23

Respond to movement of an image across the retina

Photoreceptors

24

Postural adjustments there require the integration of more than one sensory inputs called...

Sensorimotor transformations

25

Integration of visual & vestibular sensory input is largely _______ involving nuclei within the brainstem & cerebellum

Sub-cortical