Test 2 - Lecture 4 (Phototransduction) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 - Lecture 4 (Phototransduction) Deck (48)
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1

somatosensory system reports

the body's interactions with its immediate surrounds via touch and feel

2

olfactory system reports

information concerning our surrounds via detection of airborne molecules that arise from carious sources outside the body

3

gustatory system reports

nutritional content and quality of the foods and liquids that we ingest

4

visual system reports

accurately locate and identify distinct objects within our visual space

5

photoreceptors along the retina serve as the

visual receptors (transduce streams of arriving photons into bioelectrical signals for transmission into the brain)

6

intensity of light (illumination)

based upon the number of photons striking a photoreceptor per unit of time (brightness)

7

wavelength

perceived as color

8

vision is based upon the capability

to see distinct objects within our visual space is based upon detecting contrasts in illumination and color

9

visual space

all the outside sources of both emitted and reflected light that enters the eye

10

visual field

region of visual space that projects light upon the retinal surface of EACH eye

11

extensive overlap between the L and R monocular visual fields forms

binocular visual field (roughly the central 2/3 of the visual space)

12

outside the binocular visual field are the L and R

monocular crescents (lateral portions of the visual space seen by just the L or R eye)

13

retinotopic map

transmit sensory information from the retina into the primary visual cortex (basis for brain to perceive where objects located to our body)

14

actual projection of the visual field upon the surface of the retina is

inverted and left/right reversed

15

temporal visual field project upon the

nasal retina

16

nasal visual field project upon the

temporal retina

17

superior visual field projects upon the

inferior retina

18

inferior visual field projects upon the

superior retina

19

retina cell column order

photoreceptors (rods and cones), bipolar cells, and ganglion cells

20

horizontal cells

interneurons, which modulate transmission from the photoreceptor to the bipolar cell

21

bipolar cells

serve as relay between the photoreceptor and the ganglion cell

22

ganglion cells

the projection neurons that generate signals for transmission into the brain via optic nerve

23

rods

high sensitivity, night (scotopic) vision; are monochromatic (no color)

24

cones

low sensitivity, providing day (photopic) vision; are chromatic

25

structure of the retna

pigment epithelium, photoreceptor layer, neural network layer, ganglion cell layer

26

muller cells

function as channel for light photons to reach photoreceptors

27

ganglion cells are always stimulated by the NT released from the

bipolar cell

28

low intensity light... cGMP is plentiful and Na channels are

open

29

high intensity light, cGMP is reduced and Na channels are

closed

30

photoreceptor cells ______ as light intensity is reduced

depolarize