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Flashcards in test 5 Deck (49):
1

high blood pressure associated with renal, pulmonary, endocrine, and vascular diseases is known as what?

secondary hypertension

2

elevated systemic arterial pressure for which no cause can be found is known as what?

idiopathic hypertension (essential or primary)

3

the primary effect of these drugs is to decrease plasma and extracellular fluid volumes

diuretics

4

theses drugs are used in the management of hypertensive emergencies

vasodilators

5

drugs that are often used as first-line drugs in the treatment of both heart failure and hypertension are known as

ACE inhibitors

6

adverse effects of ACE inhibitors

fatigue, headaches, dry cough

7

a patient is being treated for a hypertensive emergency. the nurse expects to administer what drug?

sodium nitroprusside (Nitropress)

8

which antihypertensives are considered more effective in white patients?

beta blockers and ACE inhibitors

9

which antihypertensives are considered more effective in african americans?

calcium channel blockers and diuretics

10

what is the purpose of abtianginal drugs

to increase blood flow to ischemic cardiac tissue

11

common adverse effect of nitroglycerine (Nitrostat)?

headache

12

patients who are taking beta blockers for angina need to be taught what?

these drugs are for long-term prevention of angina episodes

13

a patient with coronary artery spasms will be most effectively treated with which type of abtianginal medication?

calcium channel blockers

14

what lab work should be monitored with ACE inhibitors

hyperkalemia

15

what is the relationship between digoxin and potassium levels

low potassium levels increase the change of digoxin toxicity

16

when caring for a patient who is taking digoxin, the nurse will monitor for which signs and symptoms of toxicity?

anorexia, visual changes, nausea and vomiting, headache, bradycardia

17

what laboratory tests are a priority when starting ACE inhibitor therapy

serum potassium levels, creatinine level, BUN

18

positive inotropic

increased contractility

19

negative chronotropic

decreased heart rate

20

negative dromotropic

slows conductions of electrical impulses

21

lidocaine infusion could be used for what disorder

ventricular dysrhythmias

22

adverse effects of quinidine (Quinidex)?

GI upset; tinnitus; ventricular ectopic beats

23

adverse effects of amidarone (Cordarone)

pulmonary toxicity

24

verapamil (Calan) is used to treat what?

recurrent proxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)

25

how should adenosine (Adenocard) be given?

fast IV push

26

if a drug has a prodysrhythmic effect, then the nurse must monitor the patent for which effect

new dysrhythmias

27

a drug that prevents the lysis of fibrin, thereby promoting clot formation

antifibrinolytic

28

the rumination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means

hemostasis

29

a substance that prevents platelet plugs from forming

anti platelet drug

30

the general term for a drug that dissolves a thrombi

anticoagulant

31

a laboratory test used to monitor the effects of drug therapy with warfarin sodium

prothrombin time (PT)
international normalized ratio (INR)

32

a standardized measure of the degree of coagulation achieved by drug therapy with warfarin sodium

international normalized ratio (INR)

33

a substance that reverses the effect of heparin

protamine sulfate

34

a substance that reverses the effect of warfarin sodium

vitamin K

35

a pharmaceutically available tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) that is created through recombinant DNA techniques

alteplase (Activase)

36

a blood clot that dislodges and travels through the blood stream

embolus

37

patients taking cholestramine (Questran) may experience what adverse effects?

belching and bloating

38

the nurse will instruct the patient taking antilipemic drugs about what dietary measures?

take fat soluble vitamins
increase fluid intake
choose foods that are low in saturated fats and cholesterol
increase the intake of raw veggies, fruits, and bran

39

what is good cholesterol

HDL

40

possible side effects of iron supplements

nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps

41

action of ACE inhibitors

inhibit the conversion of angiotensin 1 to A2

42

what do we ultimately decrease with ACE inhibitors

preload and after load

43

clonidine (Catapres)

central acting alpha 2 receptor agonist

**high incidence of 1st dose hypotension

44

captopril

short half life (need 2xday)

**not a prodrug-ready to GO!

45

lisinopril

not a prodrug-- ready to GO!!

can be combined with a diuretic

46

ACE inhibitors drug interactions (5)

NSAIDs; other ACE inhibitors; lithium; potassium supplements; potassium sparing diuretics

47

ACE inhibitors
side effects

first dose hypertension; dry cough; potassium retention; renal failure; angioedema

48

ARBs

blocks receptors for angiotensin; causes vaso/arteriol dilation

49

how are ARBs and ACE inhibitors different

no dry cough with ARBs