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Flashcards in Test Foot Deck (52):

1. How many tarsals are there? Give names

1. Medial cuneiform
2. Intermediate cuneiform
3. Lateral cuneiform
4. Cuboid
5. Navicular
6. Talus
7. Calcaneus


2. How many metarsals?



3. How many phalanges?

14 (1st toe has only 2)


4. Where are the sesamoid bones located?

Medial and lateral are in the tendons of flexor hallucis brevis muscle, on head of first metarsal


5. Bones of hindfoot? Midfoot? Forefoot? Ball of foot?

Hindfoot = calcaneus, talus
Midfoot = cuboid, navicular, cuneiforms
Forefoot = phalanges and metatarsals
Ball of foot = sesamoid of 1st met and head of 2nd met


6. Know significance of fractures of tarsal bones



7. How is the skin on the dorsal surface of the foot?

Thin and loose


8. The deep fascia is continuous of what?

Crural fascia and fascia of the plantar surface of foot


9. Thickening of the deep fascia forms what? What parts comprise this structure? Give the attachments for two of these parts

Forms inferior extensor retinaculum
Stem (frondiform ligament)
Superomedial limb – attaches at the anterior surface of medial malleolus
Inferomedial limb – attaches by blending with the plantar fascia


10. Give the four cutaneous nerves of the foot; draw their spatial relationship to each other.

Saphenous nerve
Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve
Superficial peroneal nerve
Deep peroneal nerve


11. Where is the saphenous nerve located on the foot? How far does it go?

Medial side of foot, 1st metatarsal


12. The lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve is a continuation of what nerve?

Sural nerve into foot


13. What branches does the superficial peroneal nerve give off in the foot? What does it supply?

Medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerves
Supplies middle part of the dorsum of the foot


14. What does the deep peroneal nerve supply in the foot?

Skin between 1st and 2nd toes


15. Tendons and muscles (of both leg and foot) are?

Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus
Extensor digitorum brevis
Extensor hallucis brevis


16. What tendon(s) does the extensor digitorum longus provide? What side?

One tendon for each of the lateral four toes
Dorsal expansion over toes


17. What is the only intrinsic muscle of dorsum of foot? Where does it extend?

Extensor digitorum brevis
Extends toe 2-4


18. The extensor hallucis brevis is part of what muscle?

Extensor digitorum brevis


19. Draw the arteries of the foot:
a. Lateral and medial tarsal
b. Arcuate
Branches of dorsal metatarsal arteries, dorsal digital arteries
(know what is the exception(s)
Perforating arteries
c. Deep plantar artery
d. First dorsal metatarsal artery



20. What do the perforating arteries connect?

Dorsal metatarsal arteries with the deep plantar arch


21. What are the terminal branches of the dorsalis pedis?

Deep plantar artery and first dorsal metatarsal artery


22. Where does the deep plantar artery go and what does it join with?

Goes to plantar side and joins with deep plantar arch of the lateral plantar artery


23. What does the first dorsal metatarsal artery give rise to?

Three dorsal digital arteries


24. The dorsal venous arch is made up of?

Dorsal metatarsal veins (4)
Dorsal digital veins


25. Medial dorsal digital vein is part of which toe? And the lateral dorsal digital vein?

Medial dorsal digital vein of the 1st toe
Lateral dorsal digital vein of the 5th toe


26. Draw these veins in relation to one another:
Dorsal venous arch (including branches)
Medial dorsal digital vein
Lateral digital dorsal digital
Medial and lateral marginal veins
Great saphenous vein
Small saphenous vein



27. What is the cutaneous innervation to the plantar surface of the foot? Draw it too

Saphenous nerve
Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve
Calcaneal branches of tibial nerve
Medial plantar nerve
Lateral plantar nerve


28. The lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve is a continuation of?

Sural nerve


29. What branches of the tibial nerve supply the heel area?

Calcaneal branches


30. What does the medial plantar nerve supply?

Medial 3 ½ digits


31. What does the lateral plantar nerve supply?

Lateral 1 ½ digits


32. What is the flexor retinaculum?

Thickening of the plantar fascia


33. What is the plantar aponeurosis? Describe two characteristics of it

Central part of plantar fascia
Very thick and strong, longitudinally arranged fibers


34. Give two functions of the plantar aponeurosis

Helps to support longitudinally arranged fibers
Prevent foot injury


35. Where does the Plantar Aponeurosis extend? Divides into how many slips? How does it divide the foot into compartments?

From calcaneus to the toes
Divides into three compartments
Vertical septa from it divide the foot into medial, lateral, and central compartments


36. What do the four layers of intrinsic muscles of the foot do?

Help to maintain balance and support arches of foot


37. Give the name of the muscles of the first layer. What are the attachments for the first layer muscles of the foot?

a. Abductor hallucis Tuberosity of calcaneous – base of 1st
proximal phalanx
b. Flexor digitorum brevis Tuberosity of calcaneous –
middle phalanx of lateral 4 toes
c. Abductor digiti minimi Tuberosity of calcaneous – base
of 5th proximal phalanx


38. Give the name of the muscles/tendons; and attachments (if stated) for the 2nd layer

Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
Quadratus plantae: calcaneus – tendon of the flexor digitorum longus
Lumbrical muscles: tendon of flexor digitorum longus – flexor sheath of lateral 4 toes


39. Give the names of the muscles/tendons of the third layer; and their attachments

a. Flexor digiti minimi brevis: base of 5th plantar metatarsal – 5th proximal phalanx
b. Adductor hallucis
i. Oblique head: base of met. 2-4 – base 1st proximal phalanx
ii. Transverse head: MP joint ligaments – base 1st proximal phalanx
c. Flexor hallucis brevis: cuboid – base 1st proximal phalanx


41. Give the muscles/tendons of the fourth layer; and attachments if stated

Peroneus longus tendon
Tibialis posterior tendon
Plantar interossei muscles (3): Base metatarsals 3-5 – base proximal phalanx of toes 3-5Dorsal interossei muscles (4): Adjacent sides 1-5 metatarsals – proximal phalanx of toes 2-4


41. Draw the following nerves and their spatial relationships:
Tibial nerve
Medial calcaneal n.
Medial plantar n.
Common plantar digital n.
Two proper plantar digital nerves
Lateral plantar nerve



42. The medial calcaneal supplies what?

Sensory innervation to the heel


43. The medial plantar nerve is how big relative to lateral plantar nerve?
Between what muscle layers?
Passes deep to what muscle?

Larger than the lateral plantar nerve
Between 1st and 2nd layer
Passes deep to the abductor hallucis brevis

Supplies cutaneous branch to 3 ½ digits
Medial plantar nerve also supplies motor branches to:
Abductor hallucis
Flexor digitorum brevis
Flexor hallucis brevis
1st lumbrical


44. Lateral plantar nerve passes deep to?
Provides cutaneous branches to?
Provides how many common plantar digital nerves?
Provides motor branches to?

Passes deep to the abductor hallucis
Lateral 1 ½ digits
One common plantar digital nerve
Provides motor branches to all intrinsic muscles except the four of the medial plantar nerve


45. Where does the sural nerve provide innervation to?

Sensory to lateral margin of foot and lateral side of 5th toe


46. What is the saphenous nerve a branch of? Supplies?

Femoral nerve
Sensory to medial side of foot


47. Draw and name the arteries of the sole of the foot

Drawing of
Medial and lateral plantar arteries


48. What do the two branches of the posterior tibial provide blood to? Anastomoses?

Plantar muscles
With arteries on dorsum of foot


49. Medial plantar artery passes through what muscles? Supplies?

Abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis
Supplies medial side of great toe (first proper plantar digital artery)


50. What is the course of the lateral plantar artery? Where does it pass to the medial side? Forms?

Obliquely across foot to lateral side
At base of 5th metatarsal passes to medial side
Than forms deep plantar arch


51. What does the lateral plantar artery join with on the medial side? To make?

On medial side it joins with the deep plantar branch of dorsalis pedis to complete deep plantar arch


52. Draw the following arteries showing their relation to one another

Medial plantar artery
Lateral plantar artery
Deep plantar arch
Deep plantar branch of dorsalis pedis
Deep plantar’s branches all the way to their terminus