Flashcards in Test after exam Deck (25):
How is the "post-classical" period different from the "classical" period?
In the post-classical period trade expanded and new empires emerged. Islam and the Mongols united larger and more diverse territories. Classical civilizations had either collapsed or transformed, and new civilizations took their places.
Why did Islam split into two sects (Sunni and Shi'a?)
There was debate over who was most suited to become Muhammad's successor after he died. Some )Sunnis) said that anyone who followed Mohammad's example and was a good Muslim was eligible to lead. Shi-as said that his successor had to be someone from his bloodlne.
What are the differences between Sunnis and Shi'as?
Sunnis believe that all Muslims can have a direct connection to Allah and read and interpret the Qur'an themselves. Shi'as believe that a religious leader called an imam is the only person who can interpret the Qur'an.
What steps did the Umayyads and Abbasids take to govern their empires effectively?
They divided their empires into provinces, they imposed consistent laws, and they were tolerant of other cultures although they required that non-Muslims pat higher taxes.
What is shari'ah?
It's a Muslim law code that incorporates both religious and non-religious laws. The Abbasids are more commonly associated with using it.
What factors caused the Umayyad Dynasty and the Abbasid Dynasty to decline?
They spread too far, or other Muslims believed they weren't promoting true Islam. Outside groups--nomadic tribes from central Asia, usually--put pressure on the empires.
To which geographic areas did Islam spread?
As far west as Spain, east to India, and then eventually into India. Also along the eastern coast of Africa.
What geographic or other factors led to Islam being able to spread as fast and as far as it did?
Nomadic traders helped spread it along trade routes, armies were responsible in some cases for spreading its influence.
What geographic or other factors prevented Islam from spreading any farther than it did?
Mountains and rivers were usually barriers to Islam spreading. To the west the Byzantine Empire held off the spread of Islam into Europe.
How did Muslim scholars preserve and pass along the ideas of other cultures?
They made books and housed books of other cultures in their libraries and in the House of Wisdom.
Why didn't civilizations develop in Western Africa until c. 500 BC?
They were separated from other civilizations by the Sahara Desert and therefore didn't benefit from cultural diffusion of the ideas that other civilizations had come up with.
What was happening in the rest of the world while Western Africans were developing iron technology?
Rome was developing its Republic, Greek city-states were gearing up to fight the Persians, the Persian Empire was controlling most of Central Asia out to India, Buddhism, Jainism, Confucianism, and taoism were emerging.
Where in western Africa did civilization develop?
along the Niger River
Why were Ghana and Mali able to control the trade of gold and salt?
They were located at the meeting point of the nomadic traders of the north who had access to salt, and the people of the area to the south of them who had gold. If trade was going to happen it had to take place somewhere in between the two regions, and Ghana/Mali provided the setting for safe and profitable trade.
How did they control the trade of gold and salt?
They set up trading centers where merchants could meet and haggle over prices despite the fact that they would not have spoken the same languages. Ghana and then Mali provided protection in exchange for fees and taxes from all participants, but because the system worked well for everyone involved, people were willing to pay and the trade went on for centuries.
Who was Mansa Musa?
He was the most famous king of Mali.
Why did he make his pilgrimage to Mecca?
He was a devout Muslim, and that's one of the 5 Pillars.
What was the impact of his pilgrimage on Mali and on the Islamic world?
The Islamic world was made aware of Mali and its wealth, Mansa Musa took scholars and books back to Timbuktu with him, and he was able to build up Timbuktu and Sankore University
Who were the Bantu?
They were the people who originated in West Africa but ultimately migrated south and east. Their languages and culture spread throughout Africa.
Why did Bantu leave West Africa?
There weren't enough resources. They wanted farmland.
Where did Bantu go?
South and east, and they established fishing villages on the east coast that became major trade cities.
How did geography affect trade on the Indian Ocean?
The monsoons allowed ships to sail regularly back and forth between the east coast of Africa and Arabia, Persia, and India.
How did the Indian Ocean trade benefit everyone who took part in it?
Lots of money
How did India change after the Gupta Dynasty fell?
Muslim tribes moved in and dominated the Hindus. For the next several centuries Muslims ruled over the Hindu majority, sometimes with tolerance but very often treating them as conquered people.