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Flashcards in Asi Deck (29):

What advances or inventions came out of China in the Tang and Song Dynasties?

They came up with gunpowder, movable type printing, triangular sails, the magnetic compass--make sure you look at the chart and understand the importance of these and the other developments.


How did the civil service system and exams affect Chinese society?

It allowed the possibility of social mobility because anyone could take the exam. If they passed they could get a job in government, which would give them more social status.


Who ruled China during the Yuan Dynasty?

The Mongols


How did the Mongols treat the people they conquered

Other than the Chinese, they treated the people they conquered with tolerance and fairness. They ruled a huge empire and often had to trust local people to control what went on in their own regions.


What impact did Mongol government have on the Chinese people?

Because they rejected the Civil Service System and were afraid of the possibility of the Chinese people rising up and taking over, the Mongol government brought in foreigners to help rule China and prevented native Chinese people from gaining power.


What were the characteristics of the traditional nomadic lifestyle that the Mongols lived?

They had to be tough because of harsh conditions they lived in; there was more equality between men and women, and there really was no concept of social classes; they lived near settled populations because they didn't manufacture goods for themselves; they migrated according to the seasons and the climate.


What characteristics did Genghis Khan possess that allowed him to conquer his huge empire?

He was ruthless, well organized, and a brilliant strategist.


What were Genghis Khan's attitudes about conquering people?

He enjoyed it, and he often had to destroy cities in order to make an example for others to surrender. But once they were conquered he was fairly tolerant of their differences.


How did the stirrup help the Mongols conquer their empire?

It gave them stability while riding, even at high speeds, to use their hands for their weapons like their bows and arrows. The stirrup allowed them to be as effective on horseback as many armies were on solid ground. This made them extremely effective at defeating anyone who tried to stand in their way.


What was the Pax Mongolica?

It was a period of stability when the Mongols controlled most of Asia and maintained safe trade along the Silk Roads.


Who was Kublai Khan? He was Genghis Khan's grandson.

He ruled China as the most famous emperor of the Yuan Dynasty


Who was Marco Polo?

He was an Italian trader who traveled several times to China and spent time with Kublai Khan, sharing information about European culture.


How did his travels affect China?

Not much--they didn't even include information about him in their history books. Probably they were so used to foreign visitors that it wasn't a big deal to have him there.


How did his travels affect Europeans?

He let them know about what he saw in Asia, which was unbelievable to most Europeans. His travels made them curious about the world outside of Europe. After Kublai Khan died the Mongol Empire and safe trade along the Silk Road ended. At that point Europeans were used to having Asian goods and had a better sense of what was out there. The Age of Discovery began a couple centuries after his journeys, not directly because of his travels but his reports of what he encountered probably made Euroepans more curious and willing to find out more.


How did Korea's geography affect its history?

Korea is a peninsula that is most accessible by sea. china is across the Yellow Sea and wanted to control them but Korea was able to keep itself as separate from China as it wanted to be. Its location allowed it to serve as a cultural bridge between China and Japan


What did King Sejong do to make him one of the most important leaders in Korea's history?

He actively supported art and education and sponsored the creation of an entirely new alphabet, han'gul, that was unique to Korea and distinct from Chinese writing.


How did China influence Korea and Japan?

They introduced Buddhism and some aspects of government such as an organized bureaucracy. Golden Age inventions spread to the other places within China's area of influence.


How did Korea and Japan try to maintain their own unique identities?

Both of them "selectively borrowed ideas from China and rejected others. Japan rejected the Mandate of Heaven idea. Both of them developed their own alphabets so that their languages were distincly different from Chinese.


How did Japan's geography affect its history

As an archipelago separate from the mainland of Asia, Japan was protected from invasion and could choose when to interact with other cultures. However, its location near Korea made it possible for Chinese influence to reach japan fairly easily.


What ideas did Japan "selectively borrow" from China?

Mostly Buddhism but also an understanding of how to use an effective bureaucracy to run the government


What are the main beliefs of Shintoism?

It's an animistic religion that says that spirits are found in nature and natural objects, and they must be respected.


What is feudalism?

It's the social and political system in Japan, and also in Europe, in which land was exchanged for loyalty. It created a system in which there was no social mobility, and landowners gave their loyalty to those higher in rank than themselves. Loyalty usually meant providing military service by themselves and by their armies of samurai soldiers.


How did feudalism affect Japan's society?

It created a clear social class system in which warriors were at the top and merchants were at the bottom because they did nothing to support the samurai. There was no social mobility. It also established ties of loyalty that were based on a warrior mentality, and Japanese society ended up emphasizing the importance of warfare without there always being a need to have wars.


What is a samurai?

He was a Japanese warrior of the feudal period in Japan's history.


What is expected of a samurai under the code of Bushido?

He should live and die with honor, and if he did dishonor himself or if he was in danger of being captured by an enemy it was expected that he commit seppuku, a ritual suicide, by hara kiri, which means "belly


What is a shogun

He was the highest ranking samurai in feudal Japan, and he had more power than the emperor for a while.


What is a figurehead?

It's the term for a ruler who only seems to have power. In Japan the emperor remained in his position because he was descended from the Sun Goddess, but the shogun had the real power


What is a daimyo?

Daimyos were high ranking samurai within the feudal system. They were the largest landowning nobles.


Why did the Tokugawa government want to isolate Japan

Japan was being threatened by European contact. The Japanese government was concerned about Christianity spreading and weakening the power of the emperor because he was seen as a descendant of a god. Worshipping the Christian god and taking guidance from the Pope would disrupt the loyalties that were a major part of the feudal system.