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Flashcards in Greece and Rome Test Deck (24):

Which civilization had a more favorable geographic setting for expansion? Greece or Rome?



Effects of geography on Greece

Mountains made it difficult to expand; limited resources and access to the sea resulted in them developing extensive Mediterranean trade; they didn't unify, but instead lived in independent city-states (polises)


Effects of geography on Rome

The Italian peninsula is in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, so it was able to control trade once it defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars. Rome continued to expand by sea all around the Mediterranean coast, and then took advantage of the flatness and relative openness of areas to the north of Italy to expand into most of Western Europe. The good farmland encouraged population growth


Why were Athens and Sparta usually enemies of each other?

Different cultures--Sparta focused on creating and sustaining a strong military and didn't value arts and other culture; Athens was democratic and encouraged culture and education


What caused Sparta and Athens to work together?

Common enemy--the Persian Empir


Was the Persian Empire tolerant or intolerant of people within the Empire who were different from them?

They were tolerant; it was a diverse empire that permitted freedom of religion and culture as long as its citizens obeyed the laws and paid their taxes.


How did the Persian Wars affect the Greeks?

It was a big win over an enemy that people thought was invincible. Soon after their victory they entered their Golden Age


What was the effect of the Peloponnesian Wars on the Greek city-states?

Sparta technically won, but all of the city-states were weakened


What do all governments have in common?

They establish justice, ensure peace within their borders and when faced with an outside enemy, they promote the welfare of their people by providing basic services that the people can't provide for themselves (roads, infrastructure, etc.)


What is true of all democracies?

They are governments of the people, by the people, and for the people.


In a democracy, what rights do governments guarantee their people?

Basic freedoms, such as speech and religious practice, as well as protection bot within its borders and from outside threats.


In a democracy, what responsibilities do the people have toward their government?

They must obey the laws, pay their taxes, and participate in government by vote and/or participating in running the country


What were the main differences between Athenian democracy and Roman democracy?

Athenian was direct democracy, in which the citizens run the government themselves. This form is found only in Ancient Athens. Roman democracy was representative, meaning that the citizens still voted but they elected people to represent their opinions and views in the government. This is called a republic, and it's the type of democracy used in every other democracy in the world, even ours.


Why was Alexander the Great so successful in conquering a large territory?

He was a military genius, had a loyal army, and encouraged cultural diffusion by allowing the conquered people to maintain their own cultures.He attempted to spread classical Greek culture but also incorporate the cultures of the other people he conquered.


Where did Alexander the Great conquer?

Greece, Egypt, Persia, and the norther part of the Indus River valley.


Why couldn't the Romans have used the same kind of democracy that the Athenians used?

Rome was too big with too many people. having them all participate directly would have been impossible.


What were the main components of Rome's democracy?

Think about the specific government positions that kept the republic running smoothly. Look at the chart that shows the Senate, consuls, dictator and other magistrates. It began with all the power in the hands of the patricians but eventually included plebeians in greater and greater roles over time. After about 500 years the structure stopped functioning effectively, and the republic was replaced by an emperor.


How did the Romans' laws keep order in society?

They implemented the Twelve Tables, which contained both civil and criminal laws that applied to everyone and imposed penalties based on the severity of the crime. Maintaining a fair justice system was a primary goal.


How did they compare to Hammurabi's laws?

Some of the laws were very similar. Some of the punishments were more harsh and some were less harsh. See the
handout we did and the comparison question you answered on Google Classroom.


How did the Romans gain control over the Mediterranean and the rest of the territory they eventually gained?

First the defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars, and then they expanded throughout the Mediterranean and then into Western Europe through conquest. They had an extremely effective army that could defeat their opponents wherever they fought. See the map we colored in class.


How did the spread of Christianity affect the Roman Empire, both positively and negatively?

The government saw it as a threat when it first emerged, and they persecuted Christians for centuries. As time went on it had spread so far that it was impossible to stop it, and ultimately it unified the Empire by becoming the official religion.


What other factors contributed to its collapse?

invasions by Germanic tribal groups who took advantage of the weakened military and government that Rome had been experiencing for 200-300 years.


What replaced the Roman Empire in Western Europe after the Empire fell?

Europe was no longer unified, and the way was paved for the emergence of feudalism--a decentralized system of government--and the Middle Ages.


Why were the Phoenicians important to the Classical period? Think about their connections to different civilizations and the contributions they made. Make sure you understand who they were and how they affected Greece as well as Rome.

They came from the eastern coastal region of the Mediterranean and made their fortunes as traders. They were called "carriers of civilization" because they brought ideas from western Asia and traded spread them to all of the people they traded with in the Mediterranean. They had a monopoly over trade of purple dye but they're most important for the phonetic alphabet which formed the basis of the alphabet we use today. Phonetic means that it has symbols that represent sounds.