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Flashcards in Test Four Deck (37):
1

WHAT IT SOCIAL PSYCHCOLOGY?

THE STUDY OF THE WAY IN WHICH THE ACTUAL IMAGINED, ORIMPLIED PRESENCE OF OTHERS INFLUENCES THE THOUGHTS, FEELINGS AND BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUALS

2

WHAT IS PRIMARY AFFECT?

THE LIKLIHOOD THAT AN OVERALL IMPRESSION OR JUDGEMENT OF ANOTHER WILL BE INFLUENCED MORE BY THE FIRST INFORMATION RECIEVED ABOUT THAT PERSON THAN BY INFORMATION THAT COMES LATER

3

WHAT IS ATTRIBUTION?

AN INFEREENCE ANOUT THE CAUSE OF OUR OWN OR ANOTHERS BEHAVIOUR

4

WHAT IS SITUATIONAL ATTRIBUTION

ATTRIBUTION OF A BEHAVIOUR TO SOME EXTERNAL CAUSE OR FACTOR OPERATING IN THE SITUATION; AN EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTION

5

WHAT IS DISPOSITONAL ATTRIBUTION?

ATTRIBUTION OF ONES OWN OR ANOTHERS BEHAVIOUR TO SOME INTERNAL CAUSE SUCH AS A PERSONAL TRAIT, MOTIVE, OR ATTITUDE; AN INTERNAL ATTRIBUTION

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WHAT IS FUNDEMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR

THE TENDENCY TO OVEREMPHASIZE INTERNAL FACTORS AND UNDEREMPHASIZE SITUATIONAL ONES WHEN EXPLAINING OTHER PEOPLES BEHAVIOUR

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WHAT IS SELF SERVING BIAS?

OUR TENDENCY TO ATTRIBUTE OUR SUCCESSES TO DISPOSITONAL CAUSES, AND OUR FAILURES TO SITUATIONAL CAUSES

8

WHAT IS CONFORMITY

CHANGING OR ADOPTING A BEHVIOUR OR AN ATTITUDE TO BE CONSISTENT WITH THE NORMS OF A GROUP OR THE EXPECTATIONS OF OTHERS

9

WHAT IS OBEDIENCE

DO NOT KNOW

10

WHAT IS SOCIAL FACILLITATION

ANY POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS; EITHER AN AUDIENCE EFFECT OR A CO-ACTION EFFECT

11

WHAT IS AUDIENCE EFFECT

THE IMPACT OF PASSIVE SPECTATORS ON PERFORMANCE

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WHAT IS COACTION EFFECT

THE IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE CAUSED BY THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS ENGAGED IN THE SAME TASK

13

WHAT IS SOCIAL LOAFING

THE TENDENCY TO PUT FORTH LESS EFFORT WHEN WORKING WITH OTHERS ON A COMMON TASK THAN WHEN WORKING ALONE

14

WHAT IS COGNITIVE DISSONANCE

THE UNPLEASANT STATE THAT CAN OCCUR WHEN PEOPLE BECOME AWART OF INCONSISTENCIES BETWEEN THEIR ATTITUDES OR BETWEEN THEIR ATTITUDES AND THEIR BEHAVIOUR

15

WHAT IS PREJUDICE

ATTITUDES, USUALLY NEGATIVE, DIRECTED TOWARD OTHERS BASED ON THEIR GENDER, RELIGION, RACE OR MEMBERSHIP IN A PARTICULAR GROUP

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WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION

BEHAVIOUR, USUALLY NEGATIVE, DIRECTED TOWARD OTHERS BASED ON THEIR GENDER, RELIGION, RACE OR MEMBERSHIP IN A PARTICULAR GROUP

17

WHAT IS REALISTIC CONFLICT THEORY

THE NOTION THAT PREJUDICES ARISE WHEN SOCIAL GROUPS MUST COMPLETE FOR SCARCE ECONOMIC RESOURCES

18

WHAT ARE STEREOTYPES

WIDELY SHARED BELIEFS ABOUT CHARACTERISTIC TRAITS, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOURS OF MEMBERS OF VARIOUS SOCIAL GROUPS ( RACIAL, ETHNIC, RELIGOUS); THESE INCLUDE THE ASSUMPTION THAT THEY ARE USUALLY ALIKE

19

WHAT IS BY-STANDER EFFECT

AS THE NUMBER OF BYSTANDERS AT AN EMERGENCT INCREASES, THE PROBABILITY THAT THE VICTIM WILL RECIEVE HELP DECREASES, AND HELP, IF GIVEN, IS LIKELY TO BE DELAYED

20

WHAT IS DIFUSSION OF RESPONSIBILITY

THE FEELING AMONG BY STANDERS AT AN EMERGENCT THAT THE RESPONSIBITY FOR HELPING IS SHARED BY THE GROUP, SO THAT EACH INDIVIDUAL FEELS LESS COMPELLED TO ACT THA IF HE OR SHE ALONE BORE THE TOTAL RESPONSIBILITY

21

WHAT IS PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR

BEHAVIOUR THAT BENEFITS OTHERS, SUCH AS HELPING, CO-OPERATION, AND SYMPATHY

22

WHAT IS THE BIOMEDICAL MODEL

A perspective that focuses on illness rather than health, explaining illness in terms of biological factors without regard to psychological and social factors.

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WHAT IS BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL

A perspective that focuses on health as well as illness, and holds that both are determined by a combination of biological, psychological and social factors.

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WHAT IS GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME

The predictable sequence of reactions (the alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages) that organisms show in response to stressors.

25

WHAT IS HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

A subfield of the biopsychosocial model.

26

WHAT IS PRIMARY APPRAISAL

evaluating the significance of a potentially stressful event according to how it will affect one's well-being.

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WHAT IS SECONDARY APPRASIAL

evaluating one's coping resources and deciding how to deal with a stressful event.

28

WHAT IS STRESS

The physiological and psychological response to a condition that threatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaptation or adjustment

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WHAT IS A STRESSOR

Any event capable of producing physical or emotional stress.

30

PEOPLE ARE GENERALLY OPTIMISTIC TEND TO COPE MOER EFFECTIVELY WITH STRESS, AND IN TURN MAY REDUCE THEIR RISK OF ILLNESS. WHY IS THIS SO?

Optimists generally expect good outcomes,and this helps make them more stress-resistant than pessimists, who tend to expect bad outcomes. Optimists are more likely to use problem-focused coping, to seek social support, to find the positive aspects of a stressful situation, and to better adjust to stress.

31

SELYE FOCUSED ON THE___________ ASPECTS OF STRESS; LAZAROUS FOCUSED ON THE_________ ASPECTS OF STRESS

PHYSIOLOGICAL;PSYCHOLOGICAL

32

RICK CANNOT DECIDE WHETHER TO GO OUT OR STAY HOME AND STUDY FOR HIS TEST THIS KIND OF CONFLICT WOULD BE

APPROACH-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT

33

JUDY DOES NOT WANT TO STUDY FOR HER FINAL EXAM, BUT AT THE SAME TIME SHE DOES NOT WANT TO FAIL THE EXAM. WHAT KIND OF CONFLICT DOES SHE HAVE

AVOIDANCE-AVOIDANCE

34

NANCY WANTS TO CONTINUE TO WORK AND BUILD HER PROMISING CAREER AS A SOCIAL WORKER BUT SHE ALSO WISHES TO HAVE AND RAISE A CHILD ON A FULL-TIME BASIS. WHAT CONFLICT IS THIS

APPROACH-APPROACH CONFLICT

35

ACCORDING TO HOLMES AND RAHE, PERSONS WHO EXPERIENCE A NUMBER OF MAJOR LIDE CHANGES OVER THE COURSE OF A YEAR ARE LIKELY TO HAVE WHAT KIND OF EXPERIENCE IN THE NEXT TWO YEARS

MORE HEALTH PROBLEMS THAN USUAL

36

TRUE OR FALSE
ON THE SRRS, ONLY NEGATIVE LIFE CHANGES ARE CONSIDERED STRESSFUL

FALSE

37

ACCORDING TO RICHARD LAZARUS, WHAT USUALLY CAUSES THE AVERAGE PERSON THE MOST STRESS

HASSLES