Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (91):
The first step in understanding any behaviour or mental process
An understanding of the conditions under which a given behaviour or mental process occurs
WHen researchers can specify the condtions under which a behaviour or event is likely to occur
Describe Influence of Behaviour and Mental Processes
Researchers know hoe to apply a principle or change a condition to prevent unwanted ocurrences to bring about desired outcomes
What Does behavioural mean?
The role of learning and environmental factors
What does biological mean
The role of biological precesses and heredity
what is cognitive
The study of mental processes
The uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for conscious choice and growth
What is evolutionary
The role of inherited tendencies that have proven adaptive in humans
What is humanistic
The improtance of the individuals own subjective experience
WHat is psychoanalytical
The unconscious, the scientific study of behaviour, the role of unconscious and early-childhood experiences
What is sociocultural?
The role of social and cultural influences
What is Acetycholine
May produce either excitatory or inhibitory effects; affects movement, learning, memory and REM sleep.
What is dopamine
Plays a role in learning, attention, and movement
What is Endorphins
Provides relief from pain and produces feelings of pleasure and well-being
What is GABA
An amino acid that is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
What is norepinephrine
Affects eating habits, sleep, female sexual behaviour, and it plays a major role in alertness and wakeful ness
What is Seratonin
Produces inhiibitory effects at most of the receptors with which it forms synapses; it plays an improtant role in regulating mood, sleep, implusivity, aggression and appetite
Whaht hemisphere controls the left side of the body and that, in most people, is specialized for visual-spatial perception and for understanding non-verbal behaviour
What is the Cerebral hemisphere
The right and left havles of the cerebrum, covered by the cerebral cortex and connected by the corpus callosum
What is the largest structure of the human brain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and covered by the cerebral cortex
Which lobes control coluntary body movements, speech production and such functioning as thinking, motivation, planning for the future, impulse control and emotional responses
What are the Temporal lobes
The lobes that contain the primary auitory cortex, wernicke's area, and association areas for interpreting auditory information
What hemisphere controls the right side of the body coordinates, complex movements, and, (in 95 percent of people), controls the production of speech and written language
Which lobe contains the somatosensory cortex ( where touch, pressure, temperature and pain registar) amd other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatital orientation
What is the Cerebral Cortex?
The grey, convoluted covering of the cerebral hemispheres that is iresponsible for higher mental processess such as language, memory and thinking
Which lobe contains the primary visual cortex, where vision registers, and association areas involved in the interpretation of visual information
What is the Corpus Callosum
The thick band of nerve fibres that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and makes possible the transfer of information and the synchronization of activity between them.
What are the Adrenal Glands?
Produce epinephrine and norepinephrine, two hormones that activate the sympathetic nervous system, These glands rest just above the kidneys, Releases the corticoids, which control the body's salt balance and also releases small amounts of sex hormones
What releases sex hormones thst make reproduction possible
What are hormones?
A substance manufactured and released in one part of the body that affects other parts of the body
WHat does the pancreas do?
Regulates the bodys blood sugar levels by releasing the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream, produces digestive enzymes, curve around between the small intestine and the stomach
What does the pituitary gland do?
The endocrine gland located in the brain and often called the " mater gland", Produces the hormone that is responsible for body growth
What are sex glands?
the gonads are these types of glands, they are ovaries in felmales and testes in males, releases sex hormones that are responsible for the secondary sex characteristics- pubic and underarm hair in both sexes, breasts in females, and facial hair and a deepended voice in males
What is the thyroid gland? where is is located?
Produces the important hormone thyroxin, which regulates the rate at which food is metabolized or transformed into energy. it rests in front lower part of the neck just below the voice box (larynx)
What is a cone?
enables you to see colour and fine detail in adequate light
Receptor cells do not function in very dim light
Three types of receptor cells, each sensetive to red, green or blue
Receptors are shorter and rounder than the other type of receptor cells
What is a fovea?
located at the center of the retina
provides clearest and sharpest vision because it has the largest concentration of cones
Whats an optic nerve?
Carries visual information from the retina to the brain
What are rods?
light-sensetive receptors in the retina that provide vision in dim light
These receptor cells respond to black and whilt; while they encode all other visible wavelengths, they do so in shades of gray instead of colour
receptor cells look like slender cylinders
sometimes receptor cells are extremley sensetive allowing the ese to see in very dim light
Participants are assigned to take math tests in either a warm classroom or a cold classroom. Test scores are then examined to determine whether these conditions afftected performance. In this example, the independent variable is:
a) mathematic skill
b) test score
c) Classroom temperature
d) not identified
Dependent cariable is to__________ as independent variable is to__________.
b) correlation; experiment
c) effect; cause
d) random, control
Reliablility refers too:
a) the ability of a test to measure what it is supposed to measure
b) the consistency of a test
c) how often researchers can except a test to be right
d) the degree of relationship of the test to another, separate factor
a consistency of a test
Validity refers too:
a) the ability of a test to measure what it is supporse to measure
b) how often researchers can except a test to be right
c) the consistency of a test
d) the degree of relationship of the test to another, separate factor
the ability of a test to measure what it is supposed to measure
Which of the following would a behaviourist not consider a subject for psychological study:
a) interpersonal interactions
d) public speaking
The major emphasis of psychoanalysis is:
a) the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for conscious choice and growth
b) The perception of whole units or patterns
c) the scientific stofy of behaviour
d) the unconscious
An improtant class of neurotransmitters known as _________ includes four neurotransmitters-dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin
a) amino acids
c) gamma-aminobutryic acid
A deficiency in serotonin has been associated with:
b) impulsive violence
d) all of the above
_________- is though to facillitate the control of anxiety in humans
___________ is believed to affect metabolism of glucose and cause the nutrient energy ( glucose) stored in muscles to be released during strenuous exercise
The __________- nervous system mobilizes the bodys resources during times to stress; the_________ nervous system brings the heightened bodily responses back to normal when the emergency is over
a) somatic; autonomic
b) autonomic; somatic
c) sympathetic; parasympathetic
d) parasympathetic; sympathetic
According to the test, the part of the brain that makes us different from animals is the:
a) cerebral cortex
c) limbic system
The endocrine glands secrete________
directly into the _______
a) enzymes; digestive tract
b) hormones; bloodstream
c) hormones; enzymess
d) hormones; digestive tract
Which of the following is not true of sensory receptors
a) they are specialized to detect certain sensory stimuli
b) they transduce sensoery stimuli into nerutral impulses
c) They are located in the brain
d) they provide the link between the physical sensory world and the brain
Each morning when jackie goes to work at the dry cleaners she smells the strong odour of cleaning fluid. After she is there for a few minutes, she is no longer aware of it. Waht accounts for this?
a) signal detection theory
b) sensory adaptation
d) the just noticeable difference
According to the signal detection theory, deciding whether a stimulus is present depends partly on:
a) the probability that the stimulus will occur
b) the potential gain or loss associated with deciding that it is present or absent
c) the degree of sensory adaptation and transduction
d) both a) and b) are correct
Light moves toward the retina in which of the following paths?
a) lens, cornea, pupil
b) pupil, lens, cornea
c) pupil, cornea, lens
d) cornea, pupil, lens
Pitch is cheifly determines by____________; loudness is chiefly determined by_______----
a) amplitude; frequency
b) wavelength; frequency
c) intesity; frequency
d) intensity; amplitude
the receptors for hearing are found in the:
b) auditory canal
c) audiotory membrane
The hair cells are contained:
a) within the audiotory nerve
b) along the inner membrane of the eardrum
c) in the tiny bones of the inner ear.
d) within the cochlea
Taste receptor cells have a very short lifespan and are continually replaced:
True or False
The tendency to percieve objects as maintaining the same size, shape and brightness despite differences in distance, viewing angles, and lightning is called perceptual:
What is the function of the dendrites?
Dendrites relay messages backward, from the cell body to their own branches.
What is the function of the spinal cord?
Links the body with the brain, It transmits messages between the brain and the peripheral nervous system
What is the function of the brain stem
Handles functions that are vital to our physcial survival damage to it is life threatening
Waht is the fuction of the cerebellum?
main functions are to excecute smooth, skilled movements and to regulate muscle tone and posture
What is the function of the medulla?
Controls heart beat, breathing, blood pressure, coughing, and swallowing.
What is the function of the Thalamus?
Serves as the relay station for virtually all the information that flows into and out of the higher brain centres
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behaviour, and a wide variety of emotional behaviours
What is the function of the amygdala?
plays an imortant role in emotion, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli
What is the function of the hippocampus?
essential in the formation of the conscious memory
What are the different lobes of the brains?
Frontal lobe, partietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
Biggest lobe, control voluntart body movements, speech production, and such functions as thinking, motivation, planning for the future, impulse control and emotional responses.
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
The lobe that is repsobsible for body awareness and spatial orientation
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
Contain the primary visual cortex, where vision registars and association areas are involved in the interpretation of visual information
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
involved in reception and interpretation of auditory stimuli
What is the function of the Left hemisphere?
Handles most of the language functions, including speaking, writing, reading, and understanding the spoken word. controls right side of the body
What is the function of the right hemisphere?
processes information holistically, rather than piece by piece. controls left side of body
What is dopamine?
a neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning, attention. movement and reinforcement
What is norepinephrine?
a neurotransmitter affecting earing and sleeping
What is serotonin?
a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression and appetite.
Waht is acetcholine?
a neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning, memory, and rapid eye movement sleep and causes the skeletal muscle fibres to contract
What is Structuralism:
The first formal school of psychology, aimed at analyzing the basic elements or the structures of conscious mental experience through the use of introspection.
What is Functionalism:
: an early school psychology that was concerned with how mental processes help humans and animals adapt to their environments developed as a reaction against structuralism.
What is Psychoanalysis
: The term freud used to both his theory of personality and his therapy for the treatments of psychological disorders. The unconscious is the primary focus of psychoanalytic theory.
What is Behaviorism:
The school of psychology founded by john B. Watson that views observable, measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the role of environment as a determinant of behavior.
What is Gestalt
a German word roughly meaning form of pattern
Waht is Synaptic cleft
specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells
What is Neurotransmitters
a chemical that is released into the synaptic cleft from the axon terminal of the sending neuron crosses the synapse to the cell bodys.
Waht is Sensation
the process through which the senses pick up visual, auditory and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain; sensory information that has registered in the brain but has not been interpreted.
What is Perception
the process with sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain
Waht is Trichromatic place-frequency theories
color vision suggesting that there are three types of cones which are maximally sensitive to red, green, blue and that varying levels of activity in these receptors can produce all of the colours.