Test 2 Flashcards Preview

Intro. to Psychology > Test 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (43):
1

Any event or object in the enviroment to which an organism responds is_________

DOnt know

2

Ivan Pavlov, a noble prize winning physiologist, studied which of the following phenomena?
a) maturation
b) animial cognition
c) operant conditioning
d) classical conditioning

D

3

Little Tammy is firghtened by thunder and cries when she hears it. During a season of frequent electrical storms, thunder is always preceeded by lightning. Now tammy cries as soon as she sees lightning. In this example, the conditioned response is:
a) thunder
b) lightning
c) crying at the sound of thunder
d) crying at the sound of lightning

C

4

A puff of air on the surface of your eye will make you blink reflexively. If you hear a buzzer repeatedly just before air is puffed into your eye, eventually you will blink as soon as you hear the buzzer. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is the:
a) eyeblink response to the buzzer
b) buzzer
c) puff of air
d) eyeblink response to the puff of air

D

5

In psychology of learning, any even or object that strengthens or increases the probability of the response it follows is known as:
a) the law of effect
b) a reinforcer
c) a punishment
d) an aversive stimulus

B

6

The technique that reinforces any movement in the direction of the desired response, and gradually guiding the responses closer and closer to the ultimate goal is called:
a) training
b) approximating
c) shaping
d) moulding

C

7

In pshycology of learning, any event or object that stregnthens or increases the probablility of the repsonse it follows is known as:
a) the law of effect
b) a reinforcer
c) a punishment
d) an aversive stimulus

B

8

The technique that reinforces any movement in the direction of the desired response, and gradually guiding the responses closer and closer to the ultimate goal is called:
a) training
b) approximating
c) shaping
d) moulding

C

9

True or False
a parent with an extreme feat of the dentist or of thunderstorms might serve as a model for there fears in a child

True

10


True or False
Inhibitions cannot be strengthened through observation learning. The vast majority of people must experience the unfortunate consequences of dangerous behaviour to avoid it in the future

False

11

True or False
Memory failure can result from the failure of encoding, storage or retrieval

True

12

The memory process of locating and returning stored information to the conscious state is referred to as:
a) encoding
b) procedural encoding
c) storage
d) retrieval

D

13

An usher points out a seat to paul in a darkened theatre by moving a flashlight in a rectangular motion. Paul sees the form of the rectangle because images from the flashlight are being briefly stored in his:
a) semantic memory
b) short-term memory
c) photographic memory
d) sensory memory

D

14

Working memory is another term for:
a) iconic memory
b) semantic memory
c) elaborative memory
d) short-term memory

D

15

In the ____________ memory, the stimulus tends to fade significantly after 20-30 seconds if it is not repeated.
a) iconic and echo
b) sensory
c) long-term
d) short-term

D

16

Short-term memory's capacity is about ____________ different items or bits of information at one time
a) 7 (plus or minus 2)
b) 7 (plus or minus 1)
c) 10 (plus or minus 2)
d) 10 (plus or minus 1)

A

17

Multiple choice questions such as this one measure ____________ memory tasks
a) recall
b) recognition
c) relearning
d) saving

B

18

When studying for an exam, it is best to spend:
a) more time reciting than rereading.
b) more time rereading than reciting
c) equal time rereading and reciting
d) all of the time reciting rather than rereading.

D

19

In classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the orignianl conditioned stimulus

Generalization

20

The learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli

Discrimination

21

The reappearance of an extinguished response (in weaker form) when an organsim is exposed to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period

Spontaneous Recovery

22

The weakening and often eventual disappearance of learned response, by repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus

Extinction

23

Through this process, a child attacked by a dog can easily develop a long-lasting fear of all dogs

Generalization

24

This ability has survival value in that we know the difference between a rattlesnake and a garter snake

Discrimination

25

The termination of an unpleasant stimulus after a response in order to increase the probablity that the response will be repeated

Negative Reinforcement

26

A neutral stimulus that becomes reinforcing after repeated pairing with other reinforcers

Secondary reinforcers

27

For example, salary raises, promotions, awards, bonuses, good grades, and candy are and example of what?

Postive Reinforcements

28

Examples of this type of reinforcement are turning on one's air conditioner to terminate heat or getting out of bed to turn off a faucet to avoid listening to the annoying drip

Primary reinforcer

29

A reward or pleasent consequence that follows a response and increases the probablility that the response will be repeated

Positive Reinforcements

30

Food, water sleep, sex and the termination of pain

Primary reinforecer

31

For example, attetion from others is a powerful type of this reinforcer

Secondary reinforcer

32

A reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning

Primary Reinforcer

33

True or False
Punishment is roughly the same as negative reinforcement

F

34

True or False
Punishment lowers the porbablility of a response

T

35

True or False
Unlike punishment, negative reinforcement increases the probablity of a desired repsonse

T

36

True or False
Punishment can be accomplished by the addition of an unpleasant stimulus or by they removal of a pleasant stimulus

T

37

"Grounding" can only be uses as a method of punishment

F

38

True or False
Withholding affection and attentuon are examples of an unpleasant stimulus

T

39

True or False
Scolding, critism or a prison sentence are examples of removal of a pleasant stimulus

T

40

Another name for observational learning

modeling

41

Parents, movie stars and sports personalities

model

42

Mental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem-solving and remembering

Cognitive processes

43

Learning by imitation

Model