Flashcards in Test Two Deck (84):
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
starts at sensory receptors, works up higher-level processors
creates meaning by drawing on our experiences and expectations.
process of converting one form of energy to another.
awareness of faint stimuli, minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste or order.
Signal detection theory
predicts when we will detect weak signal or stimulus; depends not only on it's strength but our psychological state (experience)
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, predisposing one's perception, memory or responses
Minimum difference a person can detect between any stimuli half the time.
adapt to what is constant and detect only change
a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects, top-down, what we hear, taste, feel, and see.
What is the rough distinction between sensation and perception.
sensation is using your senses to process information and perception is using my memories to process information.
Theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.
What is learning?
process of acquiring through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
linking two events that occur close together
the process of learning associations
what are the two forms of conditioning.
1) classical conditioning
2) operant conditioning
(NS) Neutral Stimulus
Stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
(US) Unconditioned Stimulus
stimulus that unconditionally triggers an UR
(UR) Unconditioned Response
unlearned, naturally occurring response to a US
(CS) Conditioned stimulus
originally irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an US, comes to trigger a CR
(CR) conditioned response
learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus CS
Five major conditioning processes
1) Acquisition (the fist step: NS becomes CS)
2) Extinction (Diminished response)
3) Spontaneous Recovery (Reappearance after a pause)
4) Generalization ( Tendency to respond to similar stimuli)
5) Discrimination ( Distinguish between CS and irrelevant stimuli)
associating your own actions with consequences
Operant Principles (5)
1) Operant Behavior
2) Thorndike's Law of effect
presenting a pleasurable stimulus after a response
strengthens a response by removing something negative
administer an aversive stimulus
Withdraw a rewarding stimulus
Reinforcement Principles (5)
1) Primary Reinforce
2) Conditioned (secondary) Reinforce
3) Reinforcement Schedule
4) Continuous reinforcement Schedule
5) Partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule
What is memory?
the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.
measures of retention? (3)
retrieving information that was learned earlier
identifies items previously learned
assesses the amount of time saved when learning the material again.
translating information into a form we can use
how we maintain encoded information
finding what we started and returning it to conscious thought
processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously
3 stage processing model
1) sensory memory
2) short-term memory
3) long-term memory
immediate, very brief recording of sensory information
activated memory that holds a few items briefly
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse
encoding of implicit memories that happens without our awareness
encoding explicit memories through attention and conscious effort
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
broad concepts divided and subdivided in narrower concepts and facts
Distributed practice (2)
1) Spacing effect- distributing study or practice over time to yield better long-term recall
2)Testing effect- memory is enhanced after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information
Levels of processing (2)
1) shallow processing- encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of the word
2) Deep processing- encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; best retention when this occurs.
referred to as "g": if you excel in one area, you will likely do well in all areas
understanding living things and nature
finding the right words to express what you mean
quantifying things, making hypotheses, and proving them
discerning sound, their pitch, tone,rhythm, and timbre
visualizing the world in 3D
coordinating your mind with your body
sensing people's feelings and motives
sensing people's feelings and motives
tracking the question of why we live and why we die
ability to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is learned
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as a blood glucose, around a particular level
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
what are the classical motivation theories. (4)
1) instinct theory
2) drive-reduction theory
3) arousal theory
4) maslow's hierarchy of needs
we are motivated to behave in a certain way because we are evolutionary programed to
the physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates us to satisfy the need.
optimal arousal theory
not all behaviors achieve homeostasis or fulfill a need-based drive
Maslow's hierarchy of Needs (five needs)
1) Physiological (basic needs)
2) Safety (security)
the need to build relationships and to feel part of the group
deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups
three steps of stress
what is a stressor?
threats or dangers (perceived or real)
Main types of stressors? (3)
2) Significant life changes
3) Daily hassles and social stress
connection between the mind and the body
mange, survive, carry on, get through, confront, handle, endure
how can you manage stress? (5)
1) deep breathing
2) Aerobic exercise
3) relaxation techniques
5) active spiritual engagement