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Flashcards in Test Two Deck (84):
1

sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

2

perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

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Bottom-up processing

starts at sensory receptors, works up higher-level processors

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top-down processing

creates meaning by drawing on our experiences and expectations.

5

Transduction

process of converting one form of energy to another.

6

Absolute Thresholds

awareness of faint stimuli, minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste or order.

7

Signal detection theory

predicts when we will detect weak signal or stimulus; depends not only on it's strength but our psychological state (experience)

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Subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

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Priming

activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, predisposing one's perception, memory or responses

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Difference Threshold

Minimum difference a person can detect between any stimuli half the time.

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sensory adaptation

adapt to what is constant and detect only change

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perceptual set

a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects, top-down, what we hear, taste, feel, and see.

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What is the rough distinction between sensation and perception.

sensation is using your senses to process information and perception is using my memories to process information.

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Behaviorism

Theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.

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What is learning?

process of acquiring through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

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Associative learning

linking two events that occur close together

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Conditioning

the process of learning associations

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what are the two forms of conditioning.

1) classical conditioning
2) operant conditioning

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(NS) Neutral Stimulus

Stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

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(US) Unconditioned Stimulus

stimulus that unconditionally triggers an UR

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(UR) Unconditioned Response

unlearned, naturally occurring response to a US

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(CS) Conditioned stimulus

originally irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an US, comes to trigger a CR

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(CR) conditioned response

learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus CS

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Five major conditioning processes

1) Acquisition (the fist step: NS becomes CS)
2) Extinction (Diminished response)
3) Spontaneous Recovery (Reappearance after a pause)
4) Generalization ( Tendency to respond to similar stimuli)
5) Discrimination ( Distinguish between CS and irrelevant stimuli)

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Operant Canditioning

associating your own actions with consequences

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Operant Principles (5)

1) Operant Behavior
2) Thorndike's Law of effect
3) Reinforcement
4) Shaping
5) Punishment

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Positive Reinforcement

presenting a pleasurable stimulus after a response

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Negative Reinforcement

strengthens a response by removing something negative

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Positive punishment

administer an aversive stimulus

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Negative Punishment

Withdraw a rewarding stimulus

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Reinforcement Principles (5)

1) Primary Reinforce
2) Conditioned (secondary) Reinforce
3) Reinforcement Schedule
4) Continuous reinforcement Schedule
5) Partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule

32

What is memory?

the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.

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measures of retention? (3)

1) recall
2) recognition
3) relearning

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recall

retrieving information that was learned earlier

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recognition

identifies items previously learned

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relearned

assesses the amount of time saved when learning the material again.

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encoding

translating information into a form we can use

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storage

how we maintain encoded information

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retrieval

finding what we started and returning it to conscious thought

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parallel processing

processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously

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3 stage processing model

1) sensory memory
2) short-term memory
3) long-term memory

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sensory memory

immediate, very brief recording of sensory information

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short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly

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long-term memory

relatively permanent and limitless storehouse

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implicit memories

non-declarative memory

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automatic processing

encoding of implicit memories that happens without our awareness

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explicit memories

declarative memory

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effortful processing

encoding explicit memories through attention and conscious effort

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chuncking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

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Hierarchies

broad concepts divided and subdivided in narrower concepts and facts

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Distributed practice (2)

1) Spacing effect- distributing study or practice over time to yield better long-term recall

2)Testing effect- memory is enhanced after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information

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Levels of processing (2)

1) shallow processing- encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of the word

2) Deep processing- encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; best retention when this occurs.

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General Intelligence

referred to as "g": if you excel in one area, you will likely do well in all areas

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Naturalist

understanding living things and nature

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linguistic

finding the right words to express what you mean

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logical-mathematical

quantifying things, making hypotheses, and proving them

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musical

discerning sound, their pitch, tone,rhythm, and timbre

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spatial

visualizing the world in 3D

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Bodily-kinesthetic

coordinating your mind with your body

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intrapersonal

sensing people's feelings and motives

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interpersonal

sensing people's feelings and motives

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existential

tracking the question of why we live and why we die

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analytical intelligence

school smarts

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creative intelligence

ability to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas

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practical intelligence

street smarts

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motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

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instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is learned

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homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as a blood glucose, around a particular level

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incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

71

what are the classical motivation theories. (4)

1) instinct theory
2) drive-reduction theory
3) arousal theory
4) maslow's hierarchy of needs

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instinct theory

we are motivated to behave in a certain way because we are evolutionary programed to

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Drive-Reduction theory

the physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates us to satisfy the need.

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optimal arousal theory

not all behaviors achieve homeostasis or fulfill a need-based drive

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Maslow's hierarchy of Needs (five needs)

1) Physiological (basic needs)
2) Safety (security)
3) Love/belonging
4) Esteem
5) Self-actualization

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affiliation need

the need to build relationships and to feel part of the group

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ostracism

deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups

78

three steps of stress

1) stressor
2) Appraisal
3) Response

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what is a stressor?

threats or dangers (perceived or real)

80

Main types of stressors? (3)

1) Catastrophes
2) Significant life changes
3) Daily hassles and social stress

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Psychoneurolmmunology

connection between the mind and the body

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cope

mange, survive, carry on, get through, confront, handle, endure

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how can you manage stress? (5)

1) deep breathing
2) Aerobic exercise
3) relaxation techniques
4) meditation
5) active spiritual engagement

84

Factors that can effect your stress levels (9)

1) Align your core values
2) Problem solving
3) Develop resilience
4) eat wisely
5) change unhelpful thoughts
6) get social support
7) increase self-compassion
8) manage interpersonal stress
9) work with chronic pain