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Flashcards in Test one Deck (44):

If a neurosurgeon stimulated your right motor cortex, you would most likely?

move your left leg.


How do different neural networks communicate with one another to let you respond when a friend greets you at a party?

The visual cortex is a neural network of sensory neurons connected via inter neurons to other neural networks, including auditory networks. This allows you to integrate visual and auditory information to respond when a friend you recognize greets you at a party.


Which of the following body regions has the greatest representation in the somatosensory cortex?



Judging and planning are enabled by the?

frontal lobes.


What would it be like to talk on the phone if you didn’t have temporal lobe association areas? What would you hear? What would you understand?

You would hear sounds, but without the temporal lobe association areas you would be unable to make sense of what you are hearing.


The “uncommitted” areas that make up about three-fourths of the cerebral cortex are called?

association areas.


Plasticity is especially evident in the brains of?

young children.


An experimenter flashes the word HERON across the visual field of a man whose corpus callosum has been severed. HER is transmitted to his right hemisphere and ON to his left hemisphere. When asked to indicate what he saw?

the man says he saw ON but points to HER.


Studies of people with split brains indicate that the left hemisphere excels in?

Processing language.


Damage to the brain’s right hemisphere is most likely to reduce a person’s ability to?

Make inferences.


After continued use of a psychoactive drug, the drug user needs to take larger doses to get the desired effect. This is referred to as?



The depressants include alcohol, barbiturates,

And opiates.


Why might alcohol make a person ore helpful or more aggressive?

Alcohol is a disinhibitor- it makes us more likely to do what we would have done when sober, weather that is being helpful or being aggressive.


Long-term use of Ecstasy can?

Damage serotonin-producing neurons.


Near-death experiences are strikingly similar to the experiences evokes by?

hallucinogenic drugs.


Use of marijuana?

Impairs motor coordination, perception, reaction time, and memory.


An important psychological contributor to drug use is?

The feeling that life is meaningless and directionless.


The three major issues that interest developmental psychologist are nature/nurture, stability/change, and?



Although development is lifelong; there is stability of personality over time. For example,

Temperament tends to remain stable throughout life.


From the very first weeks of life, infants differ in their characteristics emotional reaction, with some infants being intense and anxious, while others are easygoing and relaxed. These differences are usually explained as differences in?



Body organs first begin to form and function during the period of the ______________; within 6 months, during the period of the __________________, the organs are sufficiently functional to allow a good chance of survival.

embryo; fetus


Chemicals that pass through the placenta’s screen and may harm an embryo or fetus are called?



Stroke a newborn’s cheek and the infant will root for a nipple. This illustrates?

A reflex.


Between ages 3 and 6, the human brain experiences the greatest growth in the ______ lobes, which enable rational planning and aid memory.



What is true of motor-skill development?

The sequence, but not the timing, is universal.


Why can’t we consciously recall how we learned to walk when we were infants?

We have no conscious memories of events occurring before about 3 ½ , in part because major brain areas have not yet matured.


Use Piaget’s first three stages of cognitive development to explain why young children are not just miniature adults in the way they think?

Infants in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage tend to be focused only on their own perceptions of the world and may, for example, be unaware that objects continue to exist when unseen. A child in the preoperational stage is still egocentric and incapable of appreciating simple logic, such as the reversibility of operations. A preteen in the concrete operational stage is beginning to think logically about concrete events but not about abstract concepts.


Although Piaget’s stage theory continues to inform our understanding of children’s thinking, many researchers believe that

Piaget’s stages begin earlier and development is more continuous than he realized.


An 8-month-old who reacts to a new babysitter by crying and clinging to his father’s shoulder is showing?

stranger anxiety.


In a series of experiments, the Harlows found that monkeys raised with artificial mothers tended, when afraid, to cling to their cloth mother, rather than to a wire mother holding the feeding bottle. Why was this finding important?

Before these studies, many psychologist believed that infants became attached to those who nourished them.


Adolescence is marked by the onset of?



According to Piaget, a person who can think logically about abstractions is in the

formal operations stage.


IN Erikson’s stages, the primary task during adolescence is?

Forging an identity.


34. Some developmental psychologists now refer to the period that occurs in some Western cultures from age 18 to the mid-twenties and beyond (up to the time of full adult independence) as?

emerging adulthood


By age 65, a person would be most likely to experience a cognitive decline in the ability to?

Recall and list all the important terms and concepts in a module.


36. How do cross-sectional and longitudinal studies differ?

Cross-sectional studies compare people of different ages. Longitudinal studies restudy and retest the same people over a long period of time.


Freud defined the healthy adult as one who is able to love and work. Erikson agreed, observing that the adults struggles to attain intimacy and



Contrary to what many people assume,?

Positive feelings tend to grow after mid-life.


A striking effect of hormonal changes on human sexual behavior is the?

Sharp rise in sexual interest at puberty.


In describing the sexual response cycle, Masters and Johnson noted that?

Men experience a refractory period during which they cannot experience orgasm.


What is the difference between sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias?

Sexual dysfunctions are problems that men and women may have related to sexual arousal and sexual function. Paraphilias are conditions, which may be classified as psychological disorders, in which sexual arousal is associated with nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or nonconsenting persons.


42. The use of condoms during sex (does/doesn’t) reduce the risk of getting HIV and (does/doesn’t) fully protect against skin-to-skin STI’s.



An example of an external stimulus that might influence sexual behavior is?

a sexually explicit film


Which factors have researchers thus far found to be unrelated to the development of our sexual orientation?

Researchers have found no evidence that any environmental factors influence the development of sexual orientation.