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Flashcards in Test Two Deck (27):
1

PNS

all the nerves distal to the spinal nerves

2

Somatic Division of PNS

- voluntary
- allows us to react to the environment
- spinal nerves + cranial nerves

3

Autonomic/Visceral Division of PNS

- involuntary
- maintains internal homeostasis
- sympathetic: fight or flight
- parasympathetic: rest and digest

4

Endoneurium of Spinal Nerves

- separate individuals axons

5

Perineurium of Spinal Nerves

- surrounds bundles of axons (fasicles)

6

Epineurium of Spinal Nerves

- encloses entire nerve trunk

7

Spinal Nerve Structure

- spinal nerve = dorsal and ventral roots

8

Outside the spinal column, the spinal nerve bifurcates into...

- Dorsal (poserior) rami
- Ventral (anterior) rami
- Each rami has smaller muscular and cutaneous branches

9

Classification of Peripheral Nerves

- By Velocity
Letters (afferent + efferent):
A: large, myelinated (fastest)
B: small, myelinated
C: unmyelinated
Roman Numerals (afferent only)
I (fastest) - IV (slowest)

10

Plexes

- Nerve Network
- formed from junctions of the anterior (ventral) rami

11

Cervical plexus

C1 - C4

12

Brachial Plexus

C5 - T1
- Innervates the entire upper limb

13

Lumbar Plexus

L1 - L4

14

Sacral Plexus

L4 - S4

15

Major nerves of hand and arm

Musculotaneous
Median
Ulnar
Radial

16

Avulsion Injury

BP Injury: the nerve is torn from its attachment to the spinal cord; torn at the roots; most serious type of injury

17

Rupture Injury

BP Injury: the nerve is torn, but not at the spinal cord....the more distal the injure = the better the prognosis

18

Neuroma injuries

BP Injury: With a rupture or avulsion injury, scar tissue can form where the nerve has torn and put pressure on the nerve, or block transmission

19

Stretch injuries

BP Injury: a.k.a neuropraxia; most common; nerve is damaged but not torn

20

Erb's Palsy

cause: birth injury, motorcycle accidents, contact sports
- avulsion of upper past of brachial plexus ( c5-c6) -> musculocutaneous nerve
- loss of: shoulder AB, external rotation, elbow flexion, bicep and brachioradialis stretch reflexes
- waiter's tip position: shoulder AD, internal rotation, wrist flexion

21

Klumpke's Palsy

cause: birth injury, traction injury, rare
- avulsion of lower part of bracial plexus (c8-t1) -> ulnar n, intrinsic muscles
- results: loss of sensation along arm; paralysis/atrophy of hand intrinsic muscles, long flexors and extensors of the fingers

22

Signs of Dysfunction of Peripheral Nerves

- sensory changes: decreases, lost and/or abnormal sensations
- parathesis: painless abrnormal sensation int

23

Real Trojans Drink Beer

Rami Trunk Division Cord Branches

24

Trunk

Upper, Middle, Lower

25

Division

Anterior and Posterior

26

Cord

Lateral, Posterior, Medial

27

Branch

Musculocutaneous nerve
Median nerve
Radial nerve
Ulnar nerve