Flashcards in Testis, Scrotal Sac, and Epididymis Diseases Deck (37):
Testicular tumors are most often of what origin?
Malignant testicular tumors are often of what origin?
Benign testicular tumors are often of what origin?
Sex cord-stromal tumors
What is the most common testicular cancer?
What is the most common risk factor for developing a testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer most often metastasis to what lymph nodes?
Detail the age at which following tumors are commonly seen: seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma.
Seminoma- young men and men >65
Embryonal carcinoma- Young men
Choriocarcinoma- Young men
Yolk sac tumor- Children under 4
Teratoma- all ages
What age range does the spermatocytic seminoma variant typically occur in?
Are most testicular tumors pure or mixed?
Of pure testicular tumors, what is the most common type?
Describe the biphasic appearance of a seminoma.
Neoplastic cells resemble spermatogonia
Describe the gross appearance of a seminoma.
Fish flesh appearance
Compare the chemosensitivity of embryonal carcinoma to teratoma.
Embryonal carcinoma is chemosensitive Teratoma is chemoresistant
A teratoma of the testes has squamous cells present, what risk does this confer in terms of prognosis.
Teratomas have the potential to undergo malignant transformation, thus, squamous cells may develop into SCC
Cysts are a common feature of what type of testicular tumor?
What is the most common testicular tumor in children
Yolk sac tumor
What histologic finding is pathognomonic for a yolk sac tuor?
What tumor marker indicates a yolk sac tumor?
What tumor marker indicates choriocarcinoma?
What germ cell tumor of the testes has the worst prognosis?
What are the cellular components of a choriocarcinoma?
What testicular cancers can produce gynecomastia?
Choriocarcinoma (hCG is LH analog)
Leydig cell tumor
What is the most common testicular caner in men over 60?
Descent of the testes is divided into two phases, the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase. What hormones are necessary for each phase?
Transabdominal phase- Mullerian inhibitory hormone
Inguinoscrotal phase- androgen and hCG dependent
Incomplete or improper descent of the testis into the scrotal sac- most common GU disorder in male children
What is the most common site of cryptorchidism?
Spontaneous descent of cryptorchid testis may occur, at what point in time does spontaneous descent become uncommon?
What complications may arise if an undescended testis is not corrected?
Infertility- testicular atrophy (similar changes can occur in contralateral, normal testis)
Increased risk for cancer
What are common causes of orchitis?
Extension of acute epidymitis
What are common causes of epididymitis in persons under 35?
What are common causes of epididymitis in persons over 35?
Caseating granulomas found in the epididymis are associated with what pathogen?
What is the most common cause of L sided scrotal enlargement in adults?
Where does the left spermatic vein drain?
L renal vein
Where does the right spermatic vein drain?
What diagnostic finding is key to checking for a testicular torsion?
Absent cremasteric sign- stroking inner thigh with tongue blade normally causes scrotum to retract