Testis, Scrotal Sac, and Epididymis Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Testis, Scrotal Sac, and Epididymis Diseases Deck (37):
1

Testicular tumors are most often of what origin?

Germ cell

2

Malignant testicular tumors are often of what origin?

Germ cell

3

Benign testicular tumors are often of what origin?

Sex cord-stromal tumors

4

What is the most common testicular cancer?

Seminoma

5

What is the most common risk factor for developing a testicular cancer?

Cryptorchidism

6

Testicular cancer most often metastasis to what lymph nodes?

Para-aortic

7

Detail the age at which following tumors are commonly seen: seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma.

Seminoma- young men and men >65
Embryonal carcinoma- Young men
Choriocarcinoma- Young men
Yolk sac tumor- Children under 4
Teratoma- all ages

8

What age range does the spermatocytic seminoma variant typically occur in?

Older individuals

9

Are most testicular tumors pure or mixed?

Mixed (60%)

10

Of pure testicular tumors, what is the most common type?

Seminoma

11

Describe the biphasic appearance of a seminoma.

Neoplastic cells resemble spermatogonia
Lymphocytic infiltrate

12

Describe the gross appearance of a seminoma.

Fish flesh appearance

13

Compare the chemosensitivity of embryonal carcinoma to teratoma.

Embryonal carcinoma is chemosensitive Teratoma is chemoresistant

14

A teratoma of the testes has squamous cells present, what risk does this confer in terms of prognosis.

Teratomas have the potential to undergo malignant transformation, thus, squamous cells may develop into SCC

15

Cysts are a common feature of what type of testicular tumor?

Teratoma

16

What is the most common testicular tumor in children

Yolk sac tumor

17

What histologic finding is pathognomonic for a yolk sac tuor?

Schiller-Duval bodies

18

What tumor marker indicates a yolk sac tumor?

AFP

19

What tumor marker indicates choriocarcinoma?

hCG

20

What germ cell tumor of the testes has the worst prognosis?

Choriocarcinoma

21

What are the cellular components of a choriocarcinoma?

Syncytiotrophoblast
Cytotrophoblast

22

What testicular cancers can produce gynecomastia?

Choriocarcinoma (hCG is LH analog)
Leydig cell tumor

23

What is the most common testicular caner in men over 60?

Malignant lymphoma

24

Descent of the testes is divided into two phases, the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase. What hormones are necessary for each phase?

Transabdominal phase- Mullerian inhibitory hormone
Inguinoscrotal phase- androgen and hCG dependent

25

Define cryptorchidism.

Incomplete or improper descent of the testis into the scrotal sac- most common GU disorder in male children

26

What is the most common site of cryptorchidism?

Inguinal canal

27

Spontaneous descent of cryptorchid testis may occur, at what point in time does spontaneous descent become uncommon?

3 months

28

What complications may arise if an undescended testis is not corrected?

Infertility- testicular atrophy (similar changes can occur in contralateral, normal testis)
Increased risk for cancer

29

What are common causes of orchitis?

Mumps
Syphilis
HIV
Extension of acute epidymitis

30

What are common causes of epididymitis in persons under 35?

N. gonorrhoeae
C. trachomatis

31

What are common causes of epididymitis in persons over 35?

E. coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

32

Caseating granulomas found in the epididymis are associated with what pathogen?

Tuberculosis

33

What is the most common cause of L sided scrotal enlargement in adults?

Variocele

34

Where does the left spermatic vein drain?

L renal vein

35

Where does the right spermatic vein drain?

Vena cava

36

What diagnostic finding is key to checking for a testicular torsion?

Absent cremasteric sign- stroking inner thigh with tongue blade normally causes scrotum to retract

37

What is the most common causes of scrotal enlargement in children?

Hydrocele