A _________________ test is used to analyze the frequency of observations in each category (level) of a nominal variable (or other variable that is being treated as a nominal variable). It is used to determine if the distribution of observed (sample) frequencies is equivalent to the distribution of expected frequencies.
In a Chi-square test, expected frequencies are predicted by the _______________, and reflect either no differences among the categories or the known frequencies in the population.
Null hypothesis (H0).
When counting the number of variables for a chi-square test, you ____ distinguish between independent and dependent variables.
Assumptions of the Chi-square test are that data are reported in terms of ________________, the expected frequency for any one category is no less than ___, and that observations are _______________ (i.e., each subject can appear in only one category).
A _______________ Chi-square test (a.k.a. a "____________________" test) is used when a descripitive study includes only one variable and the data to be analyzed are the frequency of observation in each category of that variable.
- Use: 1 variable; nominal (frequency) data
- Statistic: X2
- df: (C - 1), where C = number of "columns" (levels of the variable)
The __________________ Chi-square test (a.k.a. the Chi-square test for ___________________) is used when a descriptive or experimental study includes two or more variables and the data to be analyzed are the frequency of observations in each category.
- Use: 2+ variables; nominal (frequency) data
- Statistic: X2
- df: (C - 1)(R - 1), where C = number of "columns" and R = number of "Rows"
- Contingency Tables
The Single-Sample Chi-Square test is a nonparametric alternative to the ________________________.
T-test for Single Samples (group v. population).
The Multiple-Sample Chi-Square test is a nonparametric alternative to the _________________________.
T-test for Independent Samples (2 independent groups).